Figure 1: Proposed pleiotropic mechanisms of IL-19 effects in vascular smooth muscle cells. Several mechanisms occurring independently or concurrently may be responsible for IL-19 anti-inflammatory effects on VSMC. These include STAT3-mediated SOCS5 expression, which dampens early activation events such as signal transduction. The second is a down-regulation of HuR abundance and cytoplasmic translocation, resulting in attenuation of proliferative and inflammatory gene expression. The third is expression of HO-1, with subsequent protective effects attributed to HO-1 such as reduction of intracellular ROS. These mechanisms are not mutually exclusive, so varying degrees or combinations of each are likely.