Table 4: Characteristics of patients and white blood cell count categories.

CharacteristicWhite blood cell count (in 1,000s)
<6.06.0–7.98.0–9.910.0–12.0>12.0 value

Number of patients (2,176)433845541224133
 Age <0.001
 BMI <0.001
 Type 2 diabetes mellitus26.331.636.832.634.60.014
 Vascular disease25.627.927.929.928.60.817
 History of dialysis2.
Cardiac history
 Recent MI7.615.517.628.133.1<0.001
 Prior CABG5.
 Prior valve2.
 Prior PCI15.918.619.
 NYHA Class IV12.012.216.624.629.3<0.001
Cardiac anatomy and function
 Left main disease ≥50%22.927.927.931.337.60.012
 Single-vessel disease41.634.733.
 Two-vessel disease27.528.228.832.928.5
 Three-vessel disease30.937.
 Ejection fraction
Procedural characteristics
 On-pump surgery92.492.088.789.790.20.213
 Nadir hematocrit <20 on bypass11.815.013.712.115.80.465
 Cardiopulmonary bypass time (min) 0.656
 Time to initial extubation (min) <0.001
 Intraoperative myocardial infarction1.
 Return to bypass5.
 RBC transfusion36.332.930.731.743.60.041
 Use of 2 or more inotropes within 48 hours2.
Adverse outcomes
 Low-cardiac output failure7.
 Acute kidney injury29.333.631.437.538.40.128
 Return to operating room for bleeding6.
 New atrial fibrillation32.134.831.832.636.80.650
 Leg wound infection0.

COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; MI: myocardial infarction; CHF: congestive heart failure; CABG: coronary artery bypass graft surgery; PCI: percutaneous coronary intervention; WBC: white blood cell; eGFR: estimated glomerular filtration rate; CABG: coronary artery bypass graft surgery; RBC: red blood cell; ICU: intensive care unit.