Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Inflammation
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 8247014, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8247014
Research Article

Investigation of the Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Ethanol Extract of Stem Bark of Sonapatha Oroxylum indicum In Vivo

Department of Zoology, Mizoram University, Aizawl 796004, India

Received 16 October 2015; Revised 17 December 2015; Accepted 29 December 2015

Academic Editor: Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh

Copyright © 2016 K. Lalrinzuali et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. B. Calixto, M. M. Campos, M. F. Otuki, and A. R. S. Santos, “Anti-inflammatory compounds of plant origin. Part II. Modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules,” Planta Medica, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 93–103, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. W. E. Risso, I. S. Scarminio, and E. G. Moreira, “Antinociceptive and acute toxicity evaluation of Vernonia condensata Baker leaves extracted with different solvents and their mixtures,” Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 811–816, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. G. Opdenakker, W. E. Fibbe, and J. V. Damme, “The molecular basis of leukocytosis,” Immunology Today, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 182–189, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. E. Ricciotti and G. A. FitzGerald, “Prostaglandins and inflammation,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 986–1000, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. S. I. Grivennikov, F. R. Greten, and M. Karin, “Immunity, inflammation, and cancer,” Cell, vol. 140, no. 6, pp. 883–899, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. M. M. Moore, W. Chua, K. A. Charles, and S. J. Clarke, “Inflammation and cancer: causes and consequences,” Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 504–508, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Sosa, M. J. Balick, R. Arvigo et al., “Screening of the topical anti-inflammatory activity of some Central American plants,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 211–215, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. Yuan, M. L. Wahlqvist, G. He, M. Yang, and D. Li, “Natural products and anti-inflammatory activity,” Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 143–152, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. S. Fabricant and N. R. Farnsworth, “The value of plants used in traditional medicine for drug discovery,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 69–75, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. G. Durmowicz and K. R. Stenmak, “Mechanisms of structural remodeling in chronic pulmonary hypertension,” Pediatrics in Review, vol. 20, no. 11, pp. e91–e101, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  11. M. C. Thomas, “Diuretics, ACE inhibitors and NSAIDs—the triple whammy,” Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 172, no. 4, pp. 184–185, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. J. Newman and G. M. Cragg, “Marine-sourced anti-cancer and cancer pain control agents in clinical and late preclinical development,” Marine Drugs, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 255–278, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Sangeetha, K. Kousalya, R. Lavanya, C. Sowmya, D. Chamundeeswari, and C. Uma Maheswara Reddy, “In-vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of leaves of Cleodendron inerme,” Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 822–827, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. I. F. Florentino, M. M. N. Vinícius, P. M. Galdino et al., “Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Hydrocotyle umbellata L., Araliaceae (acariçoba) in mice,” Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 987–997, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. Kumar, B. S. Bajwa, S. Kuldeep, and A. N. Kalia, “Anti-inflammatory activity of herbal plants: a review,” International Journal of Advances in Pharmacy, Biology and Chemistry, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 272–281, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  16. S. S. R. Bennet, P. C. Gupta, and R. V. Rao, Venerated Plants, ICFRE, Dehradun, India, 1992.
  17. K. Ravi Kumar, D. K. Ved, R. Vijaya Sankar, and P. S. Udayan, 100 Red Listed Medicinal Plants of Conservation Concern in Southern India, Foundation for Revitalization of Local Health Traditions, Bangalore, India, 2000.
  18. P. K. Warrier, V. P. K. Nambiar, and C. Ramamkutty, Indian Medicinal Plants, vol. 4, Orient Longman, Chennai, India, 1995.
  19. M. Sawmliana, The Book of Mizoram Plants, Lois Bet, Chandmari, India, 1st edition, 2003.
  20. National Innovation foundation-India, Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of India, http://nif.org.in/?q=medicinalproperties.
  21. A. V. Raghu, S. George, V. Renju Krishna, and K. K. Sindhu, “Bioactive properties of phenolics present in Oroxylum indicum—a review,” Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 23–27, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  22. A. Ahad, A. A. Ganai, O. Sareer et al., “Therapeutic potential of Oroxylum indicum: a review,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Research & Opinion, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 163–172, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  23. M. Suffness and J. Douros, “Drugs of plant origin,” in Methods in Cancer Research, vol. 26, pp. 73–126, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  24. E. A. Asongalem, H. S. Foyet, J. Ngogang, G. N. Folefoc, T. Dimo, and P. Kamtchouing, “Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Erigeron floribundus,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 91, no. 2-3, pp. 301–308, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. H. Hosseinzadeh, M. Ramezani, and G.-A. Salmani, “Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and acute toxicity effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss extracts in mice and rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 379–385, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. Aydin, R. Beis, Y. Öztürk, K. Hüsnü, and C. Baser, “Nepetalactone: a new opioid analgesic from Nepeta caesarea Boiss,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 50, no. 7, pp. 813–817, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. E. N. Nunez Guillen, J. A. da Silva Emim, C. Souccar, and A. J. Lapa, “Analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of the aqueous extract of Plantago major L.,” International Journal of Pharmacognosy, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 99–104, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. S. Saxena, B. Gupta, K. K. Saxena, R. C. Singh, and D. M. Prasad, “Study of anti-inflammatory activity in the leaves of Nyctanthes arbor tristis Linn.—an Indian medicinal plant,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 319–330, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. C. N. Lumeng and A. R. Saltiel, “Inflammatory links between obesity and metabolic disease,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 121, no. 6, pp. 2111–2117, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. N. A. Punchard, C. J. Whelan, and I. Adcock, “The Journal of Inflammation,” Journal of Inflammation, vol. 1, article 1, pp. 1–4, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. A. Kuek, B. L. Hazleman, J. H. Gaston, and A. J. K. Östör, “Successful treatment of refractory polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis with rituximab,” Rheumatology, vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 1448–1449, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. I. Grivennikov, F. R. Greten, and M. Karin, “Immunity, inflammation, and cancer,” Cell, vol. 140, no. 6, pp. 883–899, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. N. S. Jenny, “Inflammation in aging: cause, effect, or both?” Discovery Medicine, vol. 13, no. 73, pp. 451–460, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. R. Hoque, A. Malik, F. Gorelick, and W. Mehal, “The sterile inflammatory response in acute pancreatitis,” Pancreas, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 353–357, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. D. J. Marchant, J. H. Boyd, D. C. Lin, D. J. Granville, F. S. Garmaroudi, and B. M. McManus, “Inflammation in myocardial diseases,” Circulation Research, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 126–144, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. T. Wyss-Coray and J. Rogers, “Inflammation in Alzheimer disease-a brief review of the basic science and clinical literature,” Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine, vol. 2, no. 1, Article ID a006346, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. Bartolini, A. Galli, C. Ghelardini et al., “Antinociception induced by systemic administration of local anaesthetics depends on a central cholinergic mechanism,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 711–721, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. C. A. Hiruma-Lima, J. S. Gracioso, E. J. B. Bighetti, L. Germonsén Robineou, and A. R. M. Souza Brito, “The juice of fresh leaves of Boerhaavia diffusa L. (Nyctaginaceae) markedly reduces pain in mice,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 71, no. 1-2, pp. 267–274, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. U. A. Shinde, A. S. Phadke, A. M. Nair, A. A. Mungantiwar, V. J. Dikshit, and M. N. Saraf, “Studies on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) Loud. wood oil,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 21–27, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. B. V. Owoyele, S. B. Olaleye, J. M. Oke, and R. A. Elegbe, “Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of leaf extracts of Landolphia Owariensis,” African Journal of Biomedical Research, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 131–133, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. K. Morteza-Semnani, M. Saeedi, and M. Hamidian, “Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of the topical preparation of Glaucium grandiflorum,” Fitoterapia, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 123–129, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. Sharma, S. Bhatia, M. D. Kharya et al., “Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of different fractions of Boswellia serrata,” International Journal of Phytomedicine, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 94–99, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. W. A. Mulla, S. D. More, S. B. Jamge, A. M. Pawar, M. S. Kazi, and M. R. Varde, “Evaluation of antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of roots Adhatoda vasica Linn,” International Journal of PharmTech Research, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 1364–1368, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. T. Afsar, M. R. Khan, S. Razak, S. Ullah, and B. Mirza, “Antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Acacia hydaspica R. Parker and its phytochemical analysis,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 15, article 136, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. D. Luttinger, “Determination of antinociceptive efficacy of drugs in mice using different water temperatures in a tail-immersion test,” Journal of Pharmacological Methods, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 351–357, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. L. A. Dykstra, D. E. Gmerek, G. Winger, and J. H. Woods, “Kappa opioids in rhesus monkeys. Diuresis, sedation, analgesia and discriminative stimulus effects,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 242, no. 2, pp. 413–420, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. P. A. Janssen, C. J. Niemegeers, and J. G. Dony, “The inhibitory effect of fentanyl and other morphine-like analgesics on the warm water induced tail withdrawl reflex in rats,” Arzneimittel-Forschung, vol. 13, pp. 502–507, 1963. View at Google Scholar
  48. J. C. Zanini Jr., Y. S. Medeiros, A. B. Cruz, R. R. A. Yunes, and J. B. Calixto, “Action of compounds from Mandevilla velutina on croton oil-induced ear oedema in mice. A comparative study with steroidal and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. Y. F. Wang, S. H. Shao, P. Xu, X. Q. Yang, and L. S. Qian, “Catechin-enriched green tea extract as a safe and effective agent for antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory treatment,” African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 1452–1461, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. Shibata, T. Ohkubo, H. Takahashi, and R. Inoki, “Modified formalin test: characteristic biphasic pain response,” Pain, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 347–352, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. D. Le Bars, M. Gozariu, and S. W. Cadden, “Animal models of nociception,” Pharmacological Reviews, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 597–652, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. Y. Bhagyasri, V. Lavakumar, M. S. Divya Sree, and C. K. Ashok Kumar, “An overview on anti-inflammatory activity of Indian herbal plants,” International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Nano Sciences, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  53. J. E. Chrubasik, B. D. Roufogalis, and S. Chrabasik, “Evidence of effectiveness of herbal antiinflammatory drugs in the treatment of painful osteoarthritis and chronic low back pain,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 675–683, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. J. Zhang, Y. Li, S.-S. Chen et al., “Systems pharmacology dissection of the anti-inflammatory mechanism for the medicinal herb Folium eriobotryae,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 2913–2941, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. K. Lalrinzuali, M. Vabeiryureilai, G. C. Jagetia, and P. C. Lalawmpuii, “Free radical scavenging and antioxidant potential of different extracts of Oroxylum indicum in vitro,” Advances in Biomedicine and Pharmacy, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 120–130, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. K. L. A. Souza, E. Gurgul-Convey, M. Elsner, and S. Lenzen, “Interaction between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in insulin-producing cells,” Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 197, no. 1, pp. 139–150, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. B. Hoesel and J. A. Schmid, “The complexity of NF-κB signaling in inflammation and cancer,” Molecular Cancer, vol. 12, no. 1, article 86, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. D. C. Knight and J. A. Eden, “A review of the clinical effects of phytoestrogens,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 87, no. 5, part 2, pp. 897–904, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  59. Y. Yao, L. Chen, J. Xiao et al., “Chrysin protects against focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice through attenuation of oxidative stress and inflammation,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 20913–20926, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J. Clàiria, “Cyclooxygenase-2 biology,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 9, no. 27, pp. 2177–2190, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus