Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 715123, 10 pages
Review Article

Developmental Potential for Endomorphin Opioidmimetic Drugs

1Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8586, Japan
2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Biotechnology Center, University of Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara, Italy
3Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA

Received 18 January 2012; Accepted 27 March 2012

Academic Editor: O. Bruno

Copyright © 2012 Yoshio Okada et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Morphine, which is agonist for μ-opioid receptors, has been used as an anti-pain drug for millennia. The opiate antagonists, naloxone and naltrexone, derived from morphine, were employed for drug addiction and alcohol abuse. However, these exogenous agonists and antagonists exhibit numerous and unacceptable side effects. Of the endogenous opioid peptides, endomorphin(EM)-1 and endomorphin(EM)-2 with their high μ-receptor affinity and exceptionally high selectivity relative to δ- and κ-receptors in vitro and in vivo provided a sufficiently sequence-flexible entity in order to prepare opioid-based drugs. We took advantage of this unique feature of the endomorphins by exchanging the N-terminal residue Tyr1 with 2′,6′-dimethyl-L-tyrosine (Dmt) to increase their stability and the spectrum of bioactivity. We systematically altered specific residues of [Dmt1]EM-1 and [Dmt1]EM-2 to produce various analogues. Of these analogues, [N-allyl-Dmt1]EM-1 (47) and [N-allyl-Dmt1]EM-2 (48) exhibited potent and selective antagonism to μ-receptors: they completely inhibited naloxone- and naltrexone-induced withdrawal from following acute morphine dependency in mice and reversed the alcohol-induced changes observed in sIPSC in hippocampal slices. Overall, we developed novel and efficacious opioid drugs without deleterious side effects that were able to resist enzymatic degradation and were readily transported intact through epithelial membranes in the gastrointestinal tract and the blood-brain-barrier.