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International Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 8723139, 9 pages
Research Article

Changes in the Physicochemical Properties of Piperine/β-Cyclodextrin due to the Formation of Inclusion Complexes

1Laboratory of Drug Safety Management, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai University, 1-1 Keyakidai, Sakado-shi, Saitama 3500295, Japan
2Faculty of Pharmacy, Srinakharinwirot University, Nakhon Nayok 26120, Thailand

Received 1 December 2015; Revised 19 January 2016; Accepted 20 January 2016

Academic Editor: Benedetto Natalini

Copyright © 2016 Toshinari Ezawa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Piperine (PP) is a pungent component in black pepper that possesses useful biological activities; however it is practically insoluble in water. The aim of the current study was to prepare a coground mixture (GM) of PP and β-cyclodextrin (βCD) (molar ratio of PP/βCD = 1/1) and subsequently evaluate the solubility of PP and physicochemical properties of the GM. DSC thermal behavior of the GM showed the absence of melting peak of piperine. PXRD profile of the GM exhibited halo pattern and no characteristic peaks due to PP and βCD were observed. Based on Job’s plot, the PP/βCD complex in solution had a stoichiometric ratio of 1/1. Raman spectrum of the GM revealed scattering peaks assigned for the benzene ring (C=C), the methylene groups (CH2), and ether groups (C-O-C) of PP that were broaden and shifted to lower frequencies. SEM micrographs showed that particles in the GM were agglomerated and had rough surface, unlike pure PP and pure βCD particles. At 15 min of dissolution testing, the amount dissolved of PP in the GM was dramatically increased (about 16 times) compared to that of pure PP. Moreover the interaction between PP and βCD cavity was detected by 1H-1H NMR nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy NMR spectroscopy.