Table of Contents Author Guidelines
International Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Volume 2017, Article ID 1069718, 20 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1069718
Review Article

Targeting Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors Using Thiazolidinediones: Strategy for Design of Novel Antidiabetic Drugs

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Jazan University, P.O. Box 114, Jazan 45 142, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence should be addressed to Neelaveni Thangavel; ni.oc.oohay@4002pocgspinev

Received 24 February 2017; Revised 23 April 2017; Accepted 7 May 2017; Published 5 June 2017

Academic Editor: Benedetto Natalini

Copyright © 2017 Neelaveni Thangavel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Thiazolidinediones are a class of well-established antidiabetic drugs, also named as glitazones. Thiazolidinedione structure has been an important structural domain of research, involving design and development of new drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Extensive research on the mechanism of action and the structural requirements has revealed that the intended antidiabetic activity in type 2 diabetes is due to their agonistic effect on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) belonging to the nuclear receptor super family. Glitazones have specific affinity to PPARγ, one of the subtypes of PPARs. Certain compounds under development have dual PPARα/γ agonistic activity which might be beneficial in obesity and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Interesting array of hybrid compounds of thiazolidinedione PPARγ agonists exhibited therapeutic potential beyond antidiabetic activity. Pharmacology and chemistry of thiazolidinediones as PPARγ agonists and the potential of newer analogues as dual agonists of PPARs and other emerging targets for the therapy of type 2 diabetes are presented. This review highlights the possible modifications of the structural components in the general frame work of thiazolidinediones with respect to their binding efficacy, potency, and selectivity which would guide the future research in design of novel thiazolidinedione derivatives for the management of type 2 diabetes.