International Journal of Manufacturing Engineering The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Value Stream Mapping of Rope Manufacturing: A Case Study Thu, 16 Feb 2017 12:49:05 +0000 In today’s competitive market place, manufacturing companies must apply continuous process improvement in order to maintain a returning customer base. One way of achieving constant process improvement is through value stream mapping. Value stream mapping is used to visualize the current processes for easier understanding and problem identification. A well-defined problem statement will ensure a successful outcome of a project improvement process. This research provides a case study performed on a rope manufacturing process. A current state value stream map is created, and the possible improvements are suggested. The implemented results are shown in the form of future state map. The results show that, after waste elimination and structural revision, a manufacturing process becomes more efficient, enabling the customer to receive an order significantly faster. Korakot Yuvamitra, Jim Lee, and Kanjicai Dong Copyright © 2017 Korakot Yuvamitra et al. All rights reserved. Designing a Test Fixture with DFSS Methodology Thu, 22 Dec 2016 09:18:35 +0000 This paper addresses the application of Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology to the design of a marine riser joint hydraulic line test fixture. The original test fixture was evaluated using Value Steam Mapping (VSM) and appropriate Lean design tools such as 3D Modeling and Finite Element Analysis (FEA). A new test fixture was developed which resulted in improving the process cycle efficiency for the test from 25% to 50% percent, leading to a 50% reduction in test cost. Handling of the new test fixture is greatly improved as compared to the original fixture. Charles G. Kibbe, Jim Lee, and Kanjicai Dong Copyright © 2016 Charles G. Kibbe et al. All rights reserved. Supply Chain Inventories of Engineered Shipping Containers Mon, 05 Dec 2016 10:24:39 +0000 Manufacturing operations that assemble parts often receive components in expensive highly engineered shipping containers. As these containers circulate among suppliers, assembly operations, and logistic providers, they require inspections and repairs. This paper presents mathematical models that predict the number of available containers as functions of damage, repair times, and scheduled daily production. The models allow making complex decisions with a few basic parameters. Results not only show a minimal investment in the number of containers and safety stock but also quantify the dependence on damage rates and repair times for ordering additional containers. David A. Field and Dennis E. Blumenfeld Copyright © 2016 David A. Field and Dennis E. Blumenfeld. All rights reserved. Multiattribute Assessment of Consumables for TIG Welding of Aluminum Alloys Tue, 22 Nov 2016 13:53:03 +0000 Consumable materials for welding processes such as filler alloy, electrode, and shielding gas have major implications in welding technology. Selecting the appropriate set of consumable materials for welding aluminum alloys from various available alternates gives rise to a significant decision making problem. This study proposes a strategic justification tool based on integrated analytical hierarchy process, technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (AHP-TOPSIS), to screen and select the best possible combination of filler alloy, electrode, and shielding gas for TIG welding. Based on qualitative analysis of available alternates, ER5356 filler alloys and 0.8% zirconiated electrode are selected as suitable consumable in combination with pure argon as shielding gas. The proposed result is experimentally validated using mechanical property testing. P. K. Baghel and D. S. Nagesh Copyright © 2016 P. K. Baghel and D. S. Nagesh. All rights reserved. Impacts of Wear and Geometry Response of the Cutting Tool on Machinability of Super Austenitic Stainless Steel Mon, 17 Oct 2016 09:02:15 +0000 This paper presents a study of tool wear and geometry response when machinability tests were applied under milling operations on the Super Austenitic Stainless Steel alloy AL-6XN. Eight milling trials were executed under two cutting speeds, two feed rates, and two depths of cuts. Cutting edge profile measurements were performed to reveal response of cutting edge geometry to the cutting parameters and wear. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to inspect the cutting edges. Results showed the presence of various types of wear such as adhesion wear and abrasion wear on the tool rake and flank faces. Adhesion wear represents the formation of the built-up edge, crater wear, and chipping, whereas abrasion wear represents flank wear. The commonly formed wear was crater wear. Therefore, the optimum tool life among the executed cutting trails was identified according to minimum length and depth of the crater wear. The profile measurements showed the formation of new geometries for the worn cutting edges due to adhesion and abrasion wear and the cutting parameters. The formation of the built-up edge was observed on the rake face of the cutting tool. The microstructure of the built-up edge was investigated using SEM. The built-up edge was found to have the austenite shear lamellar structure which is identical to the formed shear lamellae of the produced chip. Mohanad Alabdullah, Ashwin Polishetty, and Guy Littlefair Copyright © 2016 Mohanad Alabdullah et al. All rights reserved. An Architecture for Hybrid Manufacturing Combining 3D Printing and CNC Machining Sun, 09 Oct 2016 13:28:24 +0000 Additive manufacturing is one of the key technologies of the 21st century. Additive manufacturing processes are often combined with subtractive manufacturing processes to create hybrid manufacturing because it is useful for manufacturing complex parts, for example, 3D printed sensor systems. Currently, several CNC machines are required for hybrid manufacturing: one machine is required for additive manufacturing and one is required for subtractive manufacturing. Disadvantages of conventional hybrid manufacturing methods are presented. Hybrid manufacturing with one CNC machine offers many advantages. It enables manufacturing of parts with higher accuracy, less production time, and lower costs. Using the example of fused layer modeling (FLM), we present a general approach for the integration of additive manufacturing processes into a numerical control for machine tools. The resulting CNC architecture is presented and its functionality is demonstrated. Its application is beyond the scope of this paper. Marcel Müller and Elmar Wings Copyright © 2016 Marcel Müller and Elmar Wings. All rights reserved. Pervasive Investigations of Critical Speed over Weight and Deflection Factors of Shaft Assembly in CNC Ball Screw System Mon, 20 Jun 2016 08:33:54 +0000 The demand for higher productivity requires machine tools to work on the adequate critical speed to have faster and more accurate ball screw system. Ball screw affects severely over the higher rotation speed of the shaft in computer numeric control (CNC) machining centers. This paper deals with an approach to calculate the initial critical speed of the shaft. Critical speed requires significant attention due to its major use in the manufacturing sectors. The impacts of weight on the critical speed of shaft assembly have been analyzed from theoretical as well as analytical investigations. Additionally, we evaluated the impact of weight on the deflection of the shafts along with failure analysis of shafts with respect to critical speed. Further, we computed the results for critical speed based factor to enhance the accuracy of CNC machining centers. Finally, the analytical estimations have been carried out to prove the validity of our proposal. Kuldeep Verma and R. M. Belokar Copyright © 2016 Kuldeep Verma and R. M. Belokar. All rights reserved. Dynamic Interaction between Machine, Tool, and Substrate in Bobbin Friction Stir Welding Tue, 26 Apr 2016 07:26:58 +0000 The bobbin friction stir welding (BFSW) process has benefits for welding aluminium alloy 6082-T6 in the boat-building industry. However this alloy is difficult to weld in the thin state. There are a large number of process variables and covert situational factors that affect weld quality. This paper investigates how tool holder and machine-type affect BFSW weld quality of 4 mm Al6082-T6. The variables were tool features (three types), machine-controller type (two types), and tool holder (fixed versus floating). Fourier analysis was performed on motor spindle current to determine the frequency response of the machine. An interaction was found between the computer numerical control (CNC), the degrees of freedom of the tool holder, and the substrate (workpiece). The conventional idea that the welding tool has a semisteady interaction with the substrate is not supported. Instead the interaction is highly dynamic, and this materially affects the weld quality. Specific vibrational interactions are associated with poor welding. The CNC machine-type also emerges as a neglected variable that needs to be given attention in the selection of process parameters. Although compliance in the tool holder might seem useful, it is shown to have negative consequences as it introduces tool positioning problems. Mohammad K. Sued and Dirk J. Pons Copyright © 2016 Mohammad K. Sued and Dirk J. Pons. All rights reserved. Analyzing the Effect of Machining Parameters Setting to the Surface Roughness during End Milling of CFRP-Aluminium Composite Laminates Mon, 07 Mar 2016 12:56:08 +0000 The quality of the machining is measured from surface finished and it is considered as the most important aspect in composite machining. An appropriate and optimum machining parameters setting is crucial during machining operation in order to enhance the surface quality. The objective of this research is to analyze the effect of machining parameters on the surface quality of CFRP-Aluminium in CNC end milling operation with PCD tool. The milling parameters evaluated are spindle speed, feed rate, and depth of cut. The Taguchi orthogonal arrays, signal-to-noise () ratio, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are employed to analyze the effect of these cutting parameters. The analysis of the results indicates that the optimal cutting parameters combination for good surface finish is high cutting speed, low feed rate, and low depth of cut. M. Nurhaniza, M. K. A. M. Ariffin, F. Mustapha, and B. T. H. T. Baharudin Copyright © 2016 M. Nurhaniza et al. All rights reserved. Implementation of Computer Aided Engineering for Francis Turbine Development in Nepal Thu, 13 Aug 2015 14:18:40 +0000 The expansion of the existing industries involved in the production of components of hydropower to the Francis turbine manufacturer up to 5 MW unit size has been recognized as one of the most promising business models in Nepal. Given the current fact that the development of Francis turbines with the manufacturers of Nepal has not been done yet, due to lack of designing expertise and limitations in the available technology, this paper presents the use of different available manufacturing technologies, which is suitable in the Nepalese hydropower market. This is an experience based paper, in which the advanced manufacturing process implementing Computer Aided Simulation (CAS), Computer Aided Design (CAD), and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) is introduced for turbine manufacturing. Moreover, CAD from Solidworks, 3D printing from Rapid Prototyping Machine (RPM), and manufacturing of three designs by three different methods, dye casting, lost wax casting, and forging in a local workshop, have been described. The outcome of this work is the identification of suitable Francis turbine development methodologies in context of Nepal, incorporating industrial revolution through research based products. Ravi Koirala, Sailesh Chitrakar, Amod Panthee, Hari Prasad Neopane, and Bhola Thapa Copyright © 2015 Ravi Koirala et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: Comparison of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of A356/SiC Metal Matrix Composites Produced by Two Different Melting Routes Tue, 14 Apr 2015 06:25:32 +0000 International Journal of Manufacturing Engineering Copyright © 2015 International Journal of Manufacturing Engineering. All rights reserved. 3D Point Cloud Data Basis Shape Management for Assembly of Modularized Large and Complicated Marine Structures Mon, 09 Mar 2015 09:27:47 +0000 As global competition heats up, in order to improve the productivity, simulation-based methods are becoming increasingly dominant in shipyards. The advancement of the CAD-based production management process even allows verification of installability and functionality before beginning the actual construction. However, whether the ship has been exactly constructed as designed can still and only be manually verified for a limited area. Therefore, significant interblock and intermodule errors are inevitably present in assembly, resulting in costly, time-consuming inspections and modifications. If the construction errors and defects can be investigated and controlled in each shop before assembly of modules, the productivity will be considerably improved. In the installation simulation of large structures, early detection and correction of the errors in junction allow fast and efficient assembly and provide better quality product development even with distributed construction yards. This technique can promote interindustrial collaboration among companies of different sizes, resulting in a significant improvement in overall productivity. In this paper, 3D point cloud data basis shape management framework has been studied with several case studies in a shipyard. Deok-Hyun Yoon, Hee Jin Kang, Jin Choi, Deok Eun Kim, and Xin Huang Copyright © 2015 Deok-Hyun Yoon et al. All rights reserved. Development of HPDC Advanced Dies by Casting with Reinforced Tool Steels Mon, 09 Feb 2015 08:08:46 +0000 High pressure die casting (HPDC) dies are nowadays manufactured with high quality forged steels. Cavities are made by electrical discharge machining (EDM) or by high speed milling. The average life of an aluminium HPDC die is about 125.000 injections. Refrigeration circuits have simple configurations, because they are produced by drilling the die with straight holes. They are limitations in the distances and diameters of holes. Sensors are placed where the geometry of the die permits an easy machining. In order to obtain complex figures, several rapid prototyping methods have been developed. However, there is a limitation in the life of the dies produced by this technique, from several parts to thousands. A new method to obtain semifinished high pressure die casting dies in a steel of higher mechanical properties and with the refrigeration circuits and sensors embedded into it is described in this paper. The method consists in producing a molten steel alloy with micro-nano-special ceramic particles inserted in it and casting the composite material in sand moulds of the desired geometry. The resultant solidified near-net shape die with the cooling tubes and sensors embedded into it. A use-life and a productivity about 50% and 10% higher are obtained. I. Vicario, J. K. Idoiaga, E. Arratibel, I. Erauskin, L. M. Plaza, I. Crespo, and P. Caballero Copyright © 2015 I. Vicario et al. All rights reserved. An Investigation of Abrasive Water Jet Machining on Graphite/Glass/Epoxy Composite Thu, 29 Jan 2015 06:57:57 +0000 In the present research work, the effect of abrasive water jet (AWJ) machining parameters such as jet operating pressure, feed rate, standoff distance (SOD), and concentration of abrasive on kerf width produced on graphite filled glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite is investigated. Experiments were conducted based on Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal arrays and the process parameters were optimized to obtain small kerf. The main as well as interaction effects of the process parameters were analyzed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression models were developed to predict kerf width. The results show that the operating pressure, the SOD, and the feed rate are found to be significantly affecting the top kerf width and their contribution to kerf width is 24.72%, 12.38%, and 52.16%, respectively. Further, morphological study is made using scanning electron microscope (SEM) on the samples that were machined at optimized process parameters. It was observed that AWJ machined surfaces were free from delamination at optimized process parameters. Deepak Doreswamy, Basavanna Shivamurthy, Devineni Anjaiah, and N. Yagnesh Sharma Copyright © 2015 Deepak Doreswamy et al. All rights reserved. Finite Element Analysis of Residual Stress in Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Plate Induced by Deep Rolling Process under Complex Roller Path Wed, 24 Dec 2014 00:10:02 +0000 The kinematics of the deep rolling tool, contact stress, and induced residual stress in the near-surface material of a flat Ti-6Al-4V alloy plate are numerically investigated. The deep rolling tool is under multiaxis nonlinear motion in the process. Unlike available deep rolling simulations in the open literature, the roller motion investigated in this study includes penetrative and slightly translational motions. A three-dimensional finite element model with dynamic explicit technique is developed to simulate the instantaneous complex roller motions during the deep rolling process. The initial motion of the rollers followed by the penetration motion to apply the load and perform the deep rolling process, the load releasing, and material recovery steps is sequentially simulated. This model is able to capture the transient characteristics of the kinematics on the roller and contacts between the roller and the plate due to variations of roller motion. The predictions show that the magnitude of roller reaction force in the penetration direction starts to decrease with time when the roller motion changes to the deep rolling step and the residual stress distributions in the near-surface material after the material recovery step varies considerably along the roller path. J. J. Liou and T. I. El-Wardany Copyright © 2014 J. J. Liou and T. I. El-Wardany. All rights reserved. Studies on the Process Parameters of Rapid Prototyping Technique (Stereolithography) for the Betterment of Part Quality Thu, 11 Dec 2014 00:10:21 +0000 Rapid prototyping (RP) has evolved as frontier technology in the recent times, which allows direct transformation of CAD files into functional prototypes where it tremendously reduces the lead time to produce physical prototypes necessary for design verification, fit, and functional analysis by generating the prototypes directly from the CAD data. Part quality in the rapid prototyping process is a function of build parameters such as hatch cure depth, layer thickness, orientation, and hatch spacing. Thus an attempt was made to identify, study, and optimize the process parameters governing the system which are related to part characteristics using Taguchi experimental design techniques quality. The part characteristics can be divided into physical part and mechanical part characteristics. The physical characteristics are surface finish, dimensional accuracy, distortion, layer thickness, hatch cure, and hatch file, whereas mechanical characteristics are flexural strength, ultimate tensile strength, and impact strength. Thus, this paper proposes to characterize the influence of the physical build parameters over the part quality. An L9 orthogonal array was designed with the minimum number of experimental runs with desired parameter settings and also by analysis tools such as ANOVA (analysis of variance). Establishment of experimentally verified correlations between the physical part characteristics and mechanical part characteristics to obtain an optimal process parameter level for betterment of part quality is obtained. The process model obtained by the empirical relation can be used to determine the strength of the prototype for the given set of parameters that shows the dependency of strength, which are essential for designers and RP machine users. Raju Bangalore Singe Gowda, Chandra Sekhar Udayagiri, and Drakshayani Doulat Narendra Copyright © 2014 Raju Bangalore Singe Gowda et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Investigation and Multiobjective Optimization of Turning Duplex Stainless Steels Wed, 03 Dec 2014 00:10:03 +0000 This paper addresses experimental investigations of turning EN 1.4462 and EN 1.4410 duplex stainless steel grades with multilayer coated carbide inserts. Single-point wet and dry longitudinal turning tests of cylindrical bars are conducted; cutting forces, effective cutting powers, and tool wear are measured. The parametric influences of cutting speed, feed rate, and process conditions on the cutting performances such as resultant cutting force, specific effective cutting power, and flank wear are analyzed and proper conclusions are drawn. Nature-inspired metaheuristic bat algorithm is employed to handle the multiobjective optimization of the conflicting performances. Finally, the optimum cutting condition for each process condition can be selected from calculated Pareto optimal fronts by the user according to the planning requirements. Rastee D. Koyee, Uwe Heisel, Siegfried Schmauder, and Rocco Eisseler Copyright © 2014 Rastee D. Koyee et al. All rights reserved. Cutting Forces in Milling of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics Thu, 13 Nov 2014 13:55:11 +0000 The machining of fibre reinforced composites is an important activity for optimal application of these advanced materials into engineering fields. During machining any excessive cutting forces have to be avoided in order to prevent any waste product in the last stages of production cycle. Therefore, the ability to predict the cutting forces is essential to select process parameters necessary for an optimal machining. In this paper the effect of cutting conditions during milling machining on cutting force and surface roughness has been investigated. In particular the cutting force components have been analysed in function of the principal process parameters and of the contact angle. This work proposes experimental models for the determination of cutting force components for CFRP milling. Luca Sorrentino and Sandro Turchetta Copyright © 2014 Luca Sorrentino and Sandro Turchetta. All rights reserved. Flexural Strength Analysis of Starch Based Biodegradable Composite Using Areca Frond Fibre Reinforcement Thu, 13 Nov 2014 09:43:22 +0000 Natural fibres and biodegradable matrices are being considered nowadays as substitutes to synthetic fibre reinforced polymer composites mainly in sectors where high load carrying capacity and high strength are not prerequisites. Present study utilizes biodegradable matrix composite prepared by varying the weight of the base material (95–170 g), binder (5–10 g), and plasticizer (5–20 g) with treated areca frond fibres as reinforcement. Contents are transferred to a pneumatic press, compacted, and subjected to curing. Taguchi method with L8 orthogonal array was used to reduce the number of experiments. Specimens for the flexural tests are cut out from the prepared laminates and tests are performed using UTM. Maximum flexural strength of 16.97 MPa was obtained with a combination of base (170 g), binder (10 g), and plasticizer (5 g). Analysis of the results indicated that plasticizer has the maximum effect on flexural strength of the biodegradable composites. Srinivas Shenoy Heckadka, Manjeshwar Vijaya Kini, Raghuvir Pai Ballambat, Satish Shenoy Beloor, Sathish Rao Udupi, and Ullal Achutha Kini Copyright © 2014 Srinivas Shenoy Heckadka et al. All rights reserved. Characterization and Optimization of Mechanical Properties of ABS Parts Manufactured by the Fused Deposition Modelling Process Mon, 10 Nov 2014 12:07:57 +0000 While fused deposition modelling (FDM) is one of the most used additive manufacturing (AM) techniques today due to its ability to manufacture very complex geometries, the major research issues have been to balance ability to produce aesthetically appealing looking products with functionality. In this study, five important process parameters such as layer thickness, part orientation, raster angle, raster width, and air gap have been considered to study their effects on tensile strength of test specimen, using design of experiment (DOE). Using group method of data handling (GMDH), mathematical models relating the response with the process parameters have been developed. Using differential evolution (DE), optimal process parameters have been found to achieve good strength simultaneously for the response. The optimization of the mathematical model realized results in maximized tensile strength. Consequently, the additive manufacturing part produced is improved by optimizing the process parameters. The predicted models obtained show good correlation with the measured values and can be used to generalize prediction for process conditions outside the current study. Results obtained are very promising and hence the approach presented in this paper has practical applications for design and manufacture of parts using additive manufacturing technologies. Godfrey C. Onwubolu and Farzad Rayegani Copyright © 2014 Godfrey C. Onwubolu and Farzad Rayegani. All rights reserved. Failure Prediction in Bulk Metal Forming Process Mon, 10 Nov 2014 11:35:08 +0000 An important concern in metal forming is whether the desired deformation can be accomplished without defects in the final product. Various ductile fracture criteria have been developed and experimentally verified for a limited number of cases of metal forming processes. These criteria are highly dependent on the geometry of the workpiece and cannot be utilized for complicated shapes without experimental verification. However, experimental work is a resource hungry process. This paper proposes the ability of finite element analysis (FEA) software such as LS-DYNA to pinpoint the crack-like flaws in bulk metal forming products. Two different approaches named as arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) and smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) formulations were adopted. The results of the simulations agree well with the experimental work and a comparison between the two formulations has been carried out. Both approximation methods successfully predicted the flow of workpiece material (plastic deformation). However ALE method was able to pinpoint the location of the flaws. Ameen Topa and Qasim H. Shah Copyright © 2014 Ameen Topa and Qasim H. Shah. All rights reserved. Resistance Spot Welding Optimization Based on Artificial Neural Network Sun, 09 Nov 2014 12:11:05 +0000 Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) is processed by using aluminum alloy used in the automotive industry. The difficulty of RSW parameter setting leads to inconsistent quality between welds. The important RSW parameters are the welding current, electrode force, and welding time. An additional RSW parameter, that is, the electrical resistance of the aluminum alloy, which varies depending on the thickness of the material, is considered to be a necessary parameter. The parameters applied to the RSW process, with aluminum alloy, are sensitive to exact measurement. Parameter prediction by the use of an artificial neural network (ANN) as a tool in finding the parameter optimization was investigated. The ANN was designed and tested for predictive weld quality by using the input and output data in parameters and tensile shear strength of the aluminum alloy, respectively. The results of the tensile shear strength testing and the estimated parameter optimization are applied to the RSW process. The achieved results of the tensile shear strength output were mean squared error (MSE) and accuracy equal to 0.054 and 95%, respectively. This indicates that that the application of the ANN in welding machine control is highly successful in setting the welding parameters. Thongchai Arunchai, Kawin Sonthipermpoon, Phisut Apichayakul, and Kreangsak Tamee Copyright © 2014 Thongchai Arunchai et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of A356/SiC Metal Matrix Composites Produced by Two Different Melting Routes Tue, 21 Oct 2014 05:58:46 +0000 A356/SiC metal matrix composites with different weight percent of SiC particles were fabricated by two different techniques such as mechanical stir casting and electromagnetic stir casting. The results of macrostructure, microstructure, and XRD study revealed uniform distribution, grain refinement, and low porosity in electromagnetic stir casing samples. The mechanical results showed that the addition of SiC particles led to the improvement in tensile strength, hardness, toughness, and fatigue life. It indicates that type of fabrication process and percentage of reinforcement are the effective factors influencing the mechanical properties. It is observed that when percentage of reinforcement increases in electromagnetic stir casting, best mechanical properties are obtained. Shashi Prakash Dwivedi, Satpal Sharma, and Raghvendra Kumar Mishra Copyright © 2014 Shashi Prakash Dwivedi et al. All rights reserved. Modeling of Tool Wear in Vibration Assisted Nano Impact-Machining by Loose Abrasives Mon, 20 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Vibration assisted nano impact-machining by loose abrasives (VANILA) is a novel nanomachining process that combines the principles of vibration assisted abrasive machining and tip-based nanomachining, to perform target specific nanoabrasive machining of hard and brittle materials. An atomic force microscope (AFM) is used as a platform in this process wherein nanoabrasives, injected in slurry between the workpiece and the vibrating AFM probe which is the tool, impact the workpiece and cause nanoscale material removal. The VANILA process are conducted such that the tool tip does not directly contact the workpiece. The level of precision and quality of the machined features in a nanomachining process is contingent on the tool wear which is inevitable. Initial experimental studies have demonstrated reduced tool wear in the VANILA process as compared to indentation process in which the tool directly contacts the workpiece surface. In this study, the tool wear rate during the VANILA process is analytically modeled considering impacts of abrasive grains on the tool tip surface. Experiments are conducted using several tools in order to validate the predictions of the theoretical model. It is seen that the model is capable of accurately predicting the tool wear rate within 10% deviation. Sagil James and Murali M. Sundaram Copyright © 2014 Sagil James and Murali M. Sundaram. All rights reserved. Material Removal Rate, Electrode Wear Rate, and Surface Roughness Evaluation in Die Sinking EDM with Hollow Tool through Response Surface Methodology Tue, 23 Sep 2014 05:25:52 +0000 Electrical discharge machining is one of the earliest nontraditional machining, extensively used in industry for processing of parts having unusual profiles with reasonable precision. In the present work, an attempt has been made to model material removal rate, electrode wear rate, and surface roughness through response surface methodology in a die sinking EDM process. The optimization was performed in two steps using one factor at a time for preliminary evaluation and a Box-Behnken design involving three variables with three levels for determination of the critical experimental conditions. Pulse on time, pulse off time, and peak current were changed during the tests, while a copper electrode having tubular cross section was employed to machine through holes on EN 353 steel alloy workpiece. The results of analysis of variance indicated that the proposed mathematical models obtained can adequately describe the performances within the limits of factors being studied. The experimental and predicted values were in a good agreement. Surface topography is revealed with the help of scanning electron microscope micrographs. Teepu Sultan, Anish Kumar, and Rahul Dev Gupta Copyright © 2014 Teepu Sultan et al. All rights reserved. Finite Element Analysis of PMMA Stretch Blow Molding Wed, 27 Aug 2014 07:18:42 +0000 The electric bubbles are a useful product made of PMMA material. They are produced by the stretch blow molding process. Thickness, which reflects the quality of the electric bubble, is a crucial parameter that deserves special attention for the molding process. In this work, finite element simulations of the stretch blow molding process are performed aiming at the determination of the preform geometry to ensure homogeneous thickness of the finished product. The geometrical parameters of the preform are optimized allowing a better homogeneity thickness compared to existing data. The predicted parameters allow the improvement of the thickness distribution. The standard deviation of the thickness is reduced to about 95% compared to the existing bubble. Afef Bougharriou, Mohieddine Jeridi, Mohamed Hdiji, Anoir Boughrira, and Kacem Saï Copyright © 2014 Afef Bougharriou et al. All rights reserved. Design and Fabrication of Diffractive Light-Collecting Microoptical Device with 1D and 2D Lamellar Grating Structures Thu, 05 Jun 2014 12:37:55 +0000 This paper presents the optimal design method of diffractive light-collecting microoptical device and its fabrication method by E-beam lithography, fast atom beam etching, and hot-embossing processes. The light-collecting device proposed in the paper is comprised of 9 (3 × 3) blocks of optical elements: 4 blocks of 1D lamellar grating structures, 4 blocks of 2D lamellar grating structures, and a single block of nonpatterned element at the center, which acts for lens to be able to collect the diffracted and transmitted lights from the lamellar grating structures into the focus area. The overall size of the light-collecting device is 300 × 300 μm2, and the size of each block was practically designed as 100 × 100 μm2. The performance of 1D and 2D lamellar grating structures was characterized in terms of diffraction efficiency and diffraction angle using a rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) method, and those geometric parameters, depth, pitch, and orientation, were optimized to achieve a high light-collecting efficiency. The master molds for the optimized structures were fabricated on Si substrate by E-beam lithography and fast atom beam etching processes. The 100 μm thick patterned polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) film was then replicated by a hot-embossing process. As a result, the patterned PMMA film collected 63.0% more incident light than a nonpatterned one. ChaBum Lee Copyright © 2014 ChaBum Lee. All rights reserved. Enhancing Multistage Deep-Drawing and Ironing Manufacturing Processes of Axisymmetric Components: Analysis and Experimentation Thu, 29 May 2014 07:49:09 +0000 An optimization technique for combined processes of deep-drawing and ironing has been created in order to improve the total process time and cost in manufacturing procedures of axisymmetric components. The initial solution is optimized by means of an algorithm that minimizes the total time of the global process, based on relationship between lengths, diameters, and velocities of each stage of a multistage process and subject to constraints related to the drawing ratio. The enhanced solution offers a significant reduction in time and cost of the global process. The final results, applied to three cases, are compared with experimental results, showing the accuracy of the complete solution. F. Javier Ramírez, Rosario Domingo, Michael S. Packianather, and Miguel A. Sebastian Copyright © 2014 F. Javier Ramírez et al. All rights reserved. Analyzing the Effectiveness of Microlubrication Using a Vegetable Oil-Based Metal Working Fluid during End Milling AISI 1018 Steel Tue, 15 Apr 2014 09:19:54 +0000 Microlubrication minimizes the exposure of metal working fluids to the machining operators leading to an economical, safer, and healthier workplace environment. In this study, a vegetable oil-based lubricant was used to conduct wear analysis and to analyze the effectiveness of microlubrication during end milling AISI 1018 steel. A solid carbide cutting tool with bright oxide finish was used with varying cutting speed and feed rate having a constant depth of cut. Abrasion was the dominant wear mechanism for all the cutting tools under consideration. Other than abrasion, sliding adhesive wear of the workpiece materials was also observed. The scanning electron microscope investigation of the used cutting tools revealed microfatigue cracks, welded microchips, and unusual built-up edges on the cutting tools flank and rake side. A full factorial experiment was conducted and regression models were generated for both the sides of tool flank wear. The study shows that with a proper selection of the cutting parameters it is possible to obtain higher tool life. Vasim Shaikh, Nourredine Boubekri, and Thomas W. Scharf Copyright © 2014 Vasim Shaikh et al. All rights reserved. Observation of Drilling Burr and Finding out the Condition for Minimum Burr Formation Mon, 24 Mar 2014 13:58:58 +0000 Suppression or elimination of burr formation at the exit edge of the workpiece during drilling is essential to make quality products. In this work, low alloy steel specimens have been drilled to observe burr height under different machining conditions. Taper shank, uncoated 14 mm diameter HSS twist drills are used in these experiments. Dry environment is maintained in experiment set I. Water is applied as cutting fluid in experiment set II. In the next four sets of experiments, the effect of providing back-up support material and exit edge bevel is observed on formation of burr at the exit edge of specimens under dry and wet conditions. It is revealed that an exit edge bevel of 31 degrees with water as the cutting fluid gives negligible burr at the exit edge of the drilled hole at certain machining conditions. Use of a back-up support can also reduce drill burr to a large extent. In this paper, artificial neural networks (ANN) are developed for modeling experimental results, and modeled values show close matching with the experimental results with small deviations. Nripen Mondal, Biswajit Sing Sardar, Ranendra Nath Halder, and Santanu Das Copyright © 2014 Nripen Mondal et al. All rights reserved.