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International Journal of Microbiology
Volume 2009, Article ID 456573, 8 pages
Research Article

Phenotypic and Genotypic Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Cattle, Sheep, and Free-Range Poultry Faeces

Department of Animal Health, NEIKER—Instituto Vasco de Investigación y Desarrollo Agrario, Berreaga 1, Bizkaia, 48160 Derio, Spain

Received 20 August 2009; Accepted 3 December 2009

Academic Editor: Todd R. Callaway

Copyright © 2009 Beatriz Oporto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 13 antimicrobial agents were determined by broth microdilution for 72 Campylobacter jejuni strains from livestock. Twenty-three (31.9%) isolates were fully susceptible; all isolates were susceptible to erythromycin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole, and meropenem, and all but one to kanamycin. Resistance to quinolones was highest (52.8%), reaching similar values among poultry, dairy cattle, and sheep, but lower in beef cattle. Resistance to tetracyclines (48.6%) was mainly associated to dairy cattle and -lactams (26.4%) to poultry. Multidrug resistance was mainly detected in dairy cattle (28.6%) and poultry (21.0%), whereas beef cattle had the highest percentage of fully susceptible isolates. Two real-time PCR assays to detect point mutations associated to quinolone (C257T in the gyrA gene) and macrolide (A2075G in the 23S rRNA genes) resistance were developed and validated on these strains. The analysis of a further set of 88 isolates by real-time PCR confirmed the absence of macrolide resistance and demonstrated the reproducibility and processability of the assay.