Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Microbiology
Volume 2009 (2009), Article ID 876050, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2009/876050
Research Article

Effects of Rainfall on E. coli Concentrations at Door County, Wisconsin Beaches

1Department of Biology and Microbiology, University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh, 800 Algoma Boulevard, Oshkosh, WI 54901, USA
2Door County Soil & Water Conservation Department, 421 Nebraska Street, P.O. Box 670, Sturgeon Bay, WI 54235, USA

Received 6 February 2009; Revised 29 July 2009; Accepted 16 November 2009

Academic Editor: Daniele Daffonchio

Copyright © 2009 Gregory T. Kleinheinz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. Hagedorn, S. L. Robinson, J. R. Filtz, S. M. Grubbs, T. A. Angier, and R. B. Reneau Jr., “Determining sources of fecal pollution in a rural Virginia watershed with antibiotic resistance patterns in fecal streptococci,” Applied & Environmental Microbiology, vol. 65, no. 12, pp. 5522–5531, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. Jagals, W. O. K. Grabow, and J. C. de Villiers, “Evaluation of indicators for assessment of human and animal faecal pollution of surface run-off,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 31, no. 5-6, pp. 235–241, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. L. McLellan, “Genetic diversity of Escherichia coli isolated from urban rivers and beach water,” Applied & Environmental Microbiology, vol. 70, no. 8, pp. 4658–4665, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. H. Stevenson, “Studies of bathing water quality and health,” American Journal of Public Health Association, vol. 43, no. 5, part 1, pp. 529–538, 1953. View at Google Scholar
  5. M. Dorfman and N. Stoner, Testing the Waters: A Guide to Water Quality at Vacation Beaches, Natural Resources Defense Council, New York, NY, USA, 2007.
  6. R. T. Bannerman, D. W. Owens, R. B. Dodds, and N. J. Hornewer, “Sources of pollutants in Wisconsin stormwater,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 28, no. 3–5, pp. 241–259, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Papiri, C. Ciaponi, A. Capodaglio et al., “Field monitoring and evaluation of innovative solutions for cleaning storm water runoff,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 47, no. 7-8, pp. 327–334, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. Ackerman and S. B. Weisberg, “Relationship between rainfall and beach bacterial concentrations on Santa Monica Bay beaches,” Journal of Water & Health, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 85–89, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. K. Haack, L. R. Fogarty, and C. Wright, “Escherichia coli and enterococci at beaches in the Grand Traverse Bay, Lake Michigan: sources, characteristics, and environmental pathways,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 37, no. 15, pp. 3275–3282, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. T. Noble, S. B. Weisberg, M. K. Leecaster et al., “Storm effects on regional beach water quality along the southern California shoreline,” Journal of Water & Health, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 23–31, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. K. C. Schiff, J. Morton, and S. B. Weisberg, “Retrospective evaluation of shoreline water quality along Santa Monica Bay beaches,” Marine Environmental Research, vol. 56, no. 1-2, pp. 245–253, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. Kinzelman, S. L. McLellan, A. D. Daniels et al., “Non-point source pollution: determination of replication versus persistence of Escherichia coli in surface water and sediments with correlation of levels to readily measurable environmental parameters,” Journal of Water & Health, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 103–114, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. L. McLellan and A. K. Salmore, “Evidence for localized bacterial loading as the cause of chronic beach closings in a freshwater marina,” Water Research, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 2700–2708, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. R. W. Sampson, S. A. Swiatnicki, C. M. McDermott, and G. T. Kleinheinz, “The effects of rainfall on Escherichia coli and total coliform levels at 15 Lake Superior recreational beaches,” Water Resources Management, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 151–159, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, “Water quality standards for Wisconsin surface waters,” Tech. Rep. NR/102, Department of Natural Resources, Madison, Wis, USA, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  16. L. S. Clescerl, A. E. Greenberg, and A. D. Eaton, Eds., Standard Methods for Examination of Water & Wastewater, American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, USA, 20th edition, 1999.
  17. G. T. Kleinheinz, C. M. McDermott, M.-C. Leewis, and E. Englebert, “Influence of sampling depth on Escherichia coli concentrations in beach monitoring,” Water Research, vol. 40, no. 20, pp. 3831–3837, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus