Table 1: Pre- and postharvest E. coli O157 : H7 phage applications.

YearAnimal/productPhage(s)StrategyMain outcomeRefs

Preharvest application

2002Poultry (broiler chicken)SPR02Air sac or drinking waterAir sac inoculation prevented mortality. Drinking water offered no protection [24]
2002Poultry (broiler chicken)SPR02 and DAF6Sprayed Significant decrease of mortality but not complete protection[22]
2003Poultry (broiler chicken)SPR02 and DAF6Sprayed and i.m. injectionAerosol spray effective only when applied immediately after bird challenge with E. coli. A single i.m. injection reduced mortality when applied immediately and 24 and 48 h after challenge[23]
2003Ruminant (lamb)DC22Oral deliveryNo reduction of fecal shedding over 30 days[29]
2006Poultry (broiler chicken)SPR02 and DAF6i.m. injection into the left thighOnly high phage titers (108) reduced mortality[30]
2006Ruminant (sheep)CEV1Oral delivery2 log CFU reduction within 2 days[31]
2006Ruminant (cattle)Phage cocktail
(KH1, SH1)
Oral/rectal delivery
(via drinking water)
No reduction of CFU when applied orally. Combined oral/rectal treatment reduced CFU but did not eradicate it[32]
2009Ruminant (steer)Phage cocktailOral/rectal deliverySmall fecal shedding reduction of oral/rectal compared to the rectal treatment and control[33]
2010Ruminant (steer)Phage cocktail (wV8, rV5, wV7, wV11)Oral delivery (gelatin capsules and in feed)No reduction of fecal shedding of nalidixic acid-resistant E. coli O157 : H7, but duration of shedding was reduced by 14 days[28]
2010PoultryPhage cocktailOral delivery and spraySignificant reduction of mortality in large scale animal experiments[34]
2010Ruminant (cattle)Phage cocktail (e11/2, e4/1c)Oral deliveryRapid CFU decrease within 24 to 48 h, but no decrease in fecal shedding levels[35]
2011Ruminant (sheep)Phage cocktail (CEV1, CEV2)Oral deliveryCocktail eradicated (>99.9%) the pathogen and is more effective than CEV1 alone[36]

Postharvest application

2004Meate11/2, e4/1c, pp01Applied on topEradication in seven of nine samples[37]
2008Fresh produce (tomato, spinach) and meatPhage cocktail (ECP-100)Applied on top/sprayed94% and 100% reductions in CFU after 120 h and 24 h in tomato and spinach; 95% reduction in ground meat after 24 h at 10°C[38]
2009Fresh produce (lettuce, cantaloupe)Phage cocktail (ECP-100)SprayedSignificant CFU reductions after 2 days at 4°C [39]
2011Fresh produce (lettuce, spinach) Phage cocktail
Added to foods together with trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) No survivors detectable after 10 min of phage combined with the TC treatment[40]
2011Food surfaces (spinach blades)Phage cocktail Sprayed4.5 log reduction CFU after 2 h of phage [41]
2011Food surfaces (steel, ceramic chips)Phage cocktail (BEC8)Applied on topEradication after 10 min at 37°C and after 1 h at 23°C[40]