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International Journal of Microbiology
Volume 2014, Article ID 141909, 11 pages
Research Article

Gastrointestinal Bacterial and Methanogenic Archaea Diversity Dynamics Associated with Condensed Tannin-Containing Pine Bark Diet in Goats Using 16S rDNA Amplicon Pyrosequencing

1Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL, USA
2Department of Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, UT, USA

Received 16 July 2013; Revised 4 September 2013; Accepted 4 September 2013; Published 2 January 2014

Academic Editor: Isabel Sá-Correia

Copyright © 2014 Byeng R. Min et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Eighteen Kiko-cross meat goats ( ) were used to collect gastrointestinal (GI) bacteria and methanogenic archaea for diversity measures when fed condensed tannin-containing pine bark (PB). Three dietary treatments were tested: control diet (0% PB and 30% wheat straw (WS); 0.17% condensed tannins (CT) dry matter (DM)); 15% PB and 15% WS (1.6% CT DM), and 30% PB and 0% WS (3.2% CT DM). A 16S rDNA bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing technique was used to characterize and elucidate changes in GI bacteria and methanogenic archaea diversity among the diets. Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum in goats with mean relative abundance values ranging from 39.7 (30% PB) to 46.5% (control) and 47.1% (15% PB). Other phyla individually accounted for fewer than 25% of the relative abundance observed. Predominant methanogens were Methanobrevibacter (75, 72, and 49%), Methanosphaera (3.3, 2.3, and 3.4%), and Methanobacteriaceae (1.2, 0.6, and 0.7%) population in control, 15, and 30% PB, respectively. Among methanogens, Methanobrevibacter was linearly decreased ( ) with increasing PB supplementation. These results indicate that feeding PB selectively altered bacteria and methanogenic archaeal populations in the GI tract of goats.