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International Journal of Microbiology
Volume 2017, Article ID 2692360, 5 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2692360
Research Article

Epidemiological Features of Clostridium difficile Colonizing the Intestine of Jordanian Infants

1Department of Pathology-Microbiology and Forensic Medicine, The University of Jordan, School of Medicine, Amman, Jordan
2Department of Pediatrics, Jordan University Hospital, Amman, Jordan

Correspondence should be addressed to Asem A. Shehabi; oj.ude.uj@ibahehsa

Received 11 August 2017; Revised 11 November 2017; Accepted 28 November 2017; Published 20 December 2017

Academic Editor: Barbara H. Iglewski

Copyright © 2017 Eman N. Abu-Khader et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Clostridium difficile is commonly found in the intestine of infants without causing any disease. This study investigated the most important epidemiological features of C. difficile strains colonizing intestine of Jordanian infants. A total of 287 fecal samples were collected from infants admitted to the Jordan University Hospital (JUH) over the period of 2015. Samples were cultured for C. difficile and their growth was identified using microbiological culture and PCR. The overall C. difficile colonization rate among hospitalized and nonhospitalized infants was 37/287 (12.9%). Neonates were less colonized than other infants (8.7% verses 19.5%). Colonization of the infants with C. difficile toxigenic strains (TcdA and TcdB) was observed in 54% of the isolates, whereas those colonized with nontoxigenic strains were 46% and only one isolate was positive for binary toxin. Breast feeding of infants is a significant factor associated with decreased colonization with C. difficile. All C. difficile strains were susceptible to vancomycin and metronidazole, while high resistance rate to ciprofloxacin (78.4%) and less resistance rate to erythromycin (29.7%) were detected among the isolates. The results showed that 40.5% of the isolates carried mutated gyrA and gyrB genes which have cross-resistance to ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin. This study represents useful epidemiological features about C. difficile colonizing intestine of infants living in a developing country.