International Journal of Microbiology The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. High Doses of Halotolerant Gut-Indigenous Lactobacillus plantarum Reduce Cultivable Lactobacilli in Newborn Calves without Increasing Its Species Abundance Wed, 17 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 To elucidate the ecological effect of high oral doses of halotolerant (resistant to table salt) indigenous-gut bacteria on other commensals early in life, we conducted a culture-based study to quantify the effect of intestinal Lactobacillus plantarum strain of bovine origin (with remarkable aerobic growth capabilities and inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and F5) on clinical health and gut lactobacilli/coliforms in newborn calves. In a double-blind placebo-randomized trial twelve colostrum-fed calves, consecutively born at a farm, were fed L. plantarum within 12 hours from birth at low ( CFU/day) or high concentrations () or placebo (q24 h, 5 d; 10 d follow-up). We developed a 2.5% NaCl-selective culture strategy to facilitate the enumeration of L. plantarum-strain-B80, and tested 384 samples (>1,152 cultures). L. plantarum-B80-like colonies were detected in a large proportion of calves (58%) even before their first 24 hours of life indicating endemic presence of the strain in the farm. In contrast to studies where human-derived Lactobacillus LGG or rhamnosus had notoriously high, but short-lived, colonization, we found that L. plantarum colonized stably with fecal shedding of  log10·g−1 (irrespective of dose, ). High doses significantly reduced other fecal lactic acid bacteria (e.g., lactobacilli, ) and slightly reduced body weight gain in calves after treatment. For the first time, a halotolerant strain of L. plantarum with inhibitory activity against a human pathogen has the ability to inhibit other lactobacilli in vivo without changing its species abundance, causing transintestinal translocation, or inducing clinical disease. The future selection of probiotics based on halotolerance may expand therapeutic product applicability. Alexander Rodriguez-Palacios, Henry R. Staempfli, and J. Scott Weese Copyright © 2017 Alexander Rodriguez-Palacios et al. All rights reserved. Pigeon Pea and Cowpea-Based Cropping Systems Improve Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Colonisation of Subsequent Maize on the Alfisols in Central Malawi Thu, 11 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Mycorrhizal associations contribute to the sustainability of crop production systems through their roles in nutrient cycling and other benefits in the soil-plant ecosystems. A two-year study was conducted on the Alfisols of Lilongwe and Dowa districts, Central Malawi, to assess the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungal colonisation levels in pigeon pea, cowpea, and maize grown in sole cropping, legume-cereal, and legume-legume intercropping systems and in the maize grown in short rotation (year 2) as influenced by the previous cropping systems and N fertilizer application. The gridline intersect method was used to assess the VAM fungal colonisation levels. Results showed that all treatments that included legumes whether grown as sole crop, in legume-cereal or in legume-legume cropping systems in the previous year, had significantly higher (P < 0.05) VAM fungal colonisation of the rotational maize crop roots by a range 39% to 50% and 19% to 47% than those in maize supplied and not supplied with N fertilizer, respectively, in a maize-maize short rotation, at the Lilongwe site. A similar trend was reported for the Dowa site. Furthermore, there were positive correlations between VAM fungal colonisation and the plant P content, dry matter yield, and nodule numbers. Further studies may help to assess the diversity of VAM fungal species in Malawi soils and identify more adaptive ones for inoculation studies. Keston O. W. Njira, Ernest Semu, Jerome P. Mrema, and Patson C. Nalivata Copyright © 2017 Keston O. W. Njira et al. All rights reserved. Molecular Study of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates for Metallo-β-Lactamases and Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamases Genes in Intensive Care Unit, Mansoura University Hospital, Egypt Mon, 08 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) has been known as a causative pathogen of hospital acquired infections. The aim of this study is to examine the presence of A. baumannii among clinical isolates from intensive care unit (ICU) in Mansoura University Hospital (MUH), its antibiotic resistance pattern, and prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) and extended-spectrum-β-lactamases (ESBLs) among A. baumannii isolates. A. baumannii was identified by colony morphology, API 20E, and confirmed by detecting the bla OXA-51-like carbapenemase gene by PCR. Phenotypic expression of MBLs resistance was demonstrated by Combined Disk Test (CDT) in 273 isolates (97.5%) and of ESBLs was demonstrated by double disc synergy method (DDST) in 6 isolates (2.1%). MBLs genes were positive in 266 isolates (95%) and ESBLs genes were positive in 8 isolates (2.9%). The most frequent genes of MBLs studied genes were IMP (95.7%) followed by SIM and GIM (47.1% and 42.9%; resp.). For ESBL genes, the most frequent gene was TEM (2.9%). From this study, we conclude that multidrug resistant (MDR) A. baumannii with MBLs activity was the most common isolate. Careful monitoring for the presence of MDR A. baumannii among hospitalized patients is recommended to avoid wide dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Nashwa M. Alkasaby and Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Copyright © 2017 Nashwa M. Alkasaby and Maysaa El Sayed Zaki. All rights reserved. Antimicrobial Activity of a Cationic Guanidine Compound against Two Pathogenic Oral Bacteria Thu, 04 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 This study evaluated the potential antimicrobial properties of a polyguanidine (CatDex) on two oral bacteria. Chlorhexidine gluconate 1340 μmoL L−1 (CHX 0.12%) was used as control. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) were grown in BHI media. Bacterial sensitivity and antimicrobial activity were determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Kirby-Bauer methods. To study side effects, that is, toxicity, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were used. Fluorometric cytotoxicity and confocal microscopy assays were used in order to test cell viability. CatDex inhibited growth of S. mutans at all concentrations and growth of P. gingivalis at all concentrations except 25 μmoL L−1. The MIC of CatDex was 50 μmoL L−1 for both S. mutans and P. gingivalis. The inhibition of bacteria exposed for 8 h at 50 μmoL L−1 of CatDex exhibited increased antimicrobial activity over time, with 91% inhibition in both bacteria. The antimicrobial activities of CatDex and CHX were similar when tested on two common bacteria. CatDex was significantly less toxic to DPSCs. CatDex toxicity depended on time and not on concentration. With regard to clinical relevance, CatDex may have potential as a novel antimicrobial agent. Further studies are in progress. E. Escamilla-García, A. G. Alcázar-Pizaña, J. C. Segoviano-Ramírez, C. Del Angel-Mosqueda, A. P. López-Lozano, E. Cárdenas-Estrada, M. A. De La Garza-Ramos, C. E. Medina-De La Garza, and M. Márquez Copyright © 2017 E. Escamilla-García et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Medicinal Plant Extracts and Photosensitization on Aflatoxin Producing Aspergillus flavus (Raper and Fennell) Tue, 02 May 2017 08:51:04 +0000 This study was undertaken with an aim of exploring the effectiveness of medicinal plant extracts in the control of aflatoxin production. Antifungal properties, photosensitization, and phytochemical composition of aqueous and organic extracts of fruits from Solanum aculeastrum, bark from Syzygium cordatum, and leaves from Prunus africana, Ocimum lamiifolium, Lippia kituiensis, and Spinacia oleracea were tested. Spores from four-day-old cultures of previously identified toxigenic fungi, UONV017 and UONV003, were used. Disc diffusion and broth dilution methods were used to test the antifungal activity. The spores were suspended in 2 ml of each extract separately and treated with visible light (420 nm) for varying periods. Organic extracts displayed species and concentration dependent antifungal activity. Solanum aculeastrum had the highest zones of inhibition diameters in both strains: UONV017 (mean =  mm) and UONV003 (mean =  mm) at 600 mg/ml. Aqueous extracts had no antifungal activity because all diameters were below 8 mm. Solanum aculeastrum had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration at 25 mg/ml against A. flavus UONV017. All the plant extracts in combination with light reduced the viability of fungal conidia compared with the controls without light, without extracts, and without both extracts and light. Six bioactive compounds were analyzed in the plant extracts. Medicinal plant extracts in this study can control conidia viability and hence with further development can control toxigenic fungal spread. Loise M. Njoki, Sheila A. Okoth, and Peter M. Wachira Copyright © 2017 Loise M. Njoki et al. All rights reserved. Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhi and Paratyphi Isolates from a General Hospital in Karawaci, Tangerang, Indonesia: A Five-Year Review Thu, 06 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Typhoid and paratyphoid fever known as enteric fever pose important global public health problem, with 21.6 million cases and approximately 250,000 deaths annually. It is a prevalent disease in Indonesia, but data on the antimicrobial resistance pattern is limited. This study aim was to provide data on the antimicrobial resistance pattern of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi bloodstream isolates in a general hospital in Karawaci, Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia, during the period of January 2011 to December 2015. Susceptibility against antimicrobials was detected according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Out of a total of 168 isolates 55.4% were S. Typhi and 44.6% S. Paratyphi A. Most of the isolates, 92.9%, were from children aged 6–18 years and adult population. There was low resistance of S. Typhi against ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin, similar to previous studies in Indonesia. In the 2011–2015 period, resistance rates against most antimicrobials and MDR rate of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi were low, emphasizing that there is a distinct epidemiological dynamic of the enteric fever in Indonesia. Nata Pratama Hardjo Lugito and Cucunawangsih Copyright © 2017 Nata Pratama Hardjo Lugito and Cucunawangsih. All rights reserved. Control of Passion Fruit Fungal Diseases Using Essential Oils Extracted from Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus agglomerata) in Egerton University Main Campus Njoro, Kenya Tue, 28 Mar 2017 08:54:33 +0000 Growth of fruits which form an important part of human diet has been jeopardized by the many fungal diseases that are present today. This study was conceived to isolate the most common fungal pathogens in passion fruits. Fungi were isolated using potato dextrose agar in addition to characterization using morphological, cultural, and biochemical means. Extraction of essential oils from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus agglomerata) was done. Before carrying the sensitivity test of essential oils to the fungal isolates, constituents of the essential oils were determined. The most common fungal pathogens isolated from passion fruits were Alternaria spp. (45%), Fusarium spp. (22%), Colletotrichum spp. (17%), and Penicillium spp. (16%). There was a relationship between heating time and yield of essential oils in rosemary () and eucalyptus (). Conversely, there was no significant difference in the amount of essential oils produced by rosemary and eucalyptus (). Furthermore, there was a significant difference in growth inhibition of the fungal pathogens between essential oils from rosemary and eucalyptus (). Fungal pathogens isolated from passion fruits can be controlled using essential oils from rosemary and eucalyptus. The oils need to be produced in large scale. Paul Njenga Waithaka, Eliud Mugu Gathuru, Benson Muriuki Githaiga, and Salome Nduta Kimani Copyright © 2017 Paul Njenga Waithaka et al. All rights reserved. Bacterial Isolates and Their Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Wound Infections among Inpatients and Outpatients Attending the University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia Sun, 12 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Background. The widespread uses of antibiotics, together with the length of time over which they have been available, have led to the emergence of resistant bacterial pathogens contributing to morbidity and mortality. This study was aimed to assess bacterial isolates and their drug susceptibility patterns from inpatients and outpatients with pus and/or wound discharge. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital from March to May, 2014. Wound swab samples were collected from each study participant and inoculated into appropriate media. The bacterial pathogens were identified using standard microbiological methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using disk diffusion technique following Kirby-Bauer method. Results. A total of 137 study subjects were included in the study with bacterial isolation rate of 115 (83.9%). Of all, 81 (59.1%) were males. Seventy-seven (57%) of the isolates were Gram-negative and 59 (43%) were Gram-positive. From the total isolates, Staphylococcus aureus was the most predominant isolate 39/115 (34%) followed by Klebsiella species (13%), coagulase negative staphylococci spp. (12%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Gram-positive isolates were resistant to ampicillin (86.4%), amoxicillin (83%), penicillin (81.3%), oxacillin (74.6%), and tetracycline (59.4%), while Gram-negative isolates were resistant to amoxicillin (97.4%), ampicillin (94.8%), tetracycline (72.7%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (66%), and chloramphenicol (54.5%). Conclusion. High prevalence of bacterial isolates was found, Staphylococcus aureus being the most dominant. High rates of multiple drug resistance pathogens to the commonly used antimicrobial agents were isolated. Therefore, concerned bodies should properly monitor the choice of antibiotics to be used as prophylaxis and empiric treatment in the study area. Aynalem Mohammed, Mengistu Endris Seid, Teklay Gebrecherkos, Moges Tiruneh, and Feleke Moges Copyright © 2017 Aynalem Mohammed et al. All rights reserved. Bacteriological Profile and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Bacteria Isolated from Pus/Wound Swab Samples from Children Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal Mon, 06 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 In Nepal, little is known about the microbiological profile of wound infections in children and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Total of 450 pus/wound swab samples collected were cultured using standard microbiological techniques and the colonies grown were identified with the help of biochemical tests. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates were detected by using cefoxitin disc and confirmed by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of oxacillin. 264 (59%) samples were culture positive. The highest incidence of bacterial infections was noted in the age group of less than 1 year (76%). Out of 264 growth positive samples, Gram-positive bacteria were isolated from 162 (61%) samples and Gram-negative bacteria were found in 102 (39%) samples. Staphylococcus aureus (99%) was the predominant Gram-positive bacteria isolated and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (44%) was predominant Gram-negative bacteria. About 19% of S. aureus isolates were found to be methicillin-resistant MIC of oxacillin ranging from 4 μg/mL to 128 μg/mL. Among the children of Nepal, those of age less than 1 year were at higher risk of wound infections by bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most common bacteria causing wound infections in children. Salu Rai, Uday Narayan Yadav, Narayan Dutt Pant, Jaya Krishna Yakha, Prem Prasad Tripathi, Asia Poudel, and Binod Lekhak Copyright © 2017 Salu Rai et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Bacteriuria and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns among Diabetic and Nondiabetic Patients Attending at Debre Tabor Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia Wed, 01 Mar 2017 07:58:49 +0000 Background. Urinary tract infection is a major health problem especially in developing countries. Information about bacterial pathogens isolated from urinary tract infection in diabetic patients and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns is limited in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed at isolating bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Methods. A hospital based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at Debre Tabor. Urine sample was inoculated onto cysteine lysine electrolyte deficient (CLED) medium. Bacterial pathogens were identified using standard bacteriological methods. The data were cleaned and entered into SPSS version 20. value less than 0.05 is considered statistically significant. Result. A total of 384 study participants were included in the study. Of them, 21 (10.9%) were from diabetics and 9 (4.7%) of them were from nondiabetics. Large proportion of gram positive bacteria at 18 (58.1%) were isolated compared to gram negatives at 13 (41.9%). Gram positive isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole 10 (58.8%). Conclusion. The isolation rates of bacterial pathogens were higher in diabetic than nondiabetic patients. Bacteriuria was significantly associated with sex and type of diabetes. Multidrug resistance to two or more antibiotics was observed in 56.7% of bacterial isolates. Rational use of antimicrobial agent should be thought of to prevent the emergence of multidrug resistance. Seble Worku, Awoke Derbie, Mulusew Alemneh Sinishaw, Yesuf Adem, and Fantahun Biadglegne Copyright © 2017 Seble Worku et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases-Producing Microorganisms in Patients Admitted at KRRH, Southwestern Uganda Wed, 08 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing pathogenic bacteria at Kabale Regional Referral Hospital (KRRH), located in southwestern Uganda, is of great concern: a phenomenon that worries clinicians and other healthcare workers due to the serious threat they pose to patients. This current study aimed at determining the phenotypic detection of ESBL-producing strains of E. coli, Klebsiella sp., and Proteus sp. isolated from clinical specimens and their prevalence in patients admitted at KRRH. We used combined disc diffusion technique to detect and establish the presence of ESBLs-producing bacteria. Of the 100 tested bacterial isolates, 89 (89%) were identified as ESBL-producing bacteria. Klebsiella sp. predominated in the samples (46 (52%)), presenting the highest frequency of ESBLs producing followed by E. coli (39 (44%)) and Proteus mirabilis (4 (4.5%)) from the combined disk diffusion. Baguma Andrew, Atek Kagirita, and Joel Bazira Copyright © 2017 Baguma Andrew et al. All rights reserved. Urinary Tract Infections among HIV-Positive Pregnant Women in Mwanza City, Tanzania, Are High and Predicted by Low CD4+ Count Tue, 31 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Introduction. Urinary tract infection (UTI) among pregnant women can lead to adverse maternal and foetal outcomes. UTI has been widely studied in the general obstetric population in Tanzania; the present study evaluated the magnitude, antimicrobial resistance, and predictors of UTI among HIV-positive pregnant women. Methods. Between March and May 2016 midstream urine samples from 234 women attending prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) clinics were analyzed using standard methods. Data was analyzed by STATA version 11.0. Results. The prevalence of UTI was 21.4%, 50/234 [95% CI: 16.1–26.6]. The asymptomatically significant bacteriuria was higher than symptomatically significant bacteriuria (16.6% versus 4.7%, ). On multivariable logistic regression analysis, single marital status (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.1–6.1, and ), low CD4+ counts of <200/μL (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.1–7.7, and ), and having UTI symptoms (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.1–6.0, and ) were independent predictors of UTI. Escherichia coli predominated (57.7%) and exhibited a low prevalence of resistance to nitrofurantoin (16.7%), gentamicin (10.0%), and ceftriaxone (13.3%). Four (13.3%) of these were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers. Conclusions. A considerable proportion of HIV-positive pregnant women in Mwanza have significant bacteriuria which calls for the need to introduce routine UTI screening at PMTCT clinics to guide specific treatment and prevent associated complications. Tito Chaula, Jeremiah Seni, Nhandi Ng’walida, Alphaxaid Kajura, Mariam M. Mirambo, Rebekah DeVinney, and Stephen E. Mshana Copyright © 2017 Tito Chaula et al. All rights reserved. Molecular Characteristics and Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Klebsiella Isolates in Mthatha, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa Mon, 30 Jan 2017 08:00:13 +0000 The increase in the incidence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing Klebsiella species has become a serious problem worldwide, because of their incrimination in antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study is to investigate the resistance genes responsible for ESBL-producing Klebsiella species and carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella (CRE) isolated in Mthatha and to study their epidemiology. A prospective, descriptive study of 202 nonrepetitive samples from patients was obtained from Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital. The cultured Klebsiella isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests and the polymerase chain reaction of , , , , and genes. Overall K. pneumoniae were the majority with 169 (83.7%) species isolates, followed by K. oxytoca with 29 (14.4%), while K. ozaenae and Raoultella ornithinolytica were 2 (0.9%) each. The prevalence of ESBL production in all Klebsiella species was 117 (57.9%). ESBL-genotypic resistance is driven in Mthatha by 121 (77.1%) followed by 105 (66.9%) and at 89 (56.7%). The most common ESBL genotype combination among the Klebsiella was + at 79 (50.3%). There is a steady increase in the rate of ESBL genes in the last five years. Sandeep Vasaikar, Larry Obi, Isaac Morobe, and Mary Bisi-Johnson Copyright © 2017 Sandeep Vasaikar et al. All rights reserved. Maize Fungal Growth Control with Scopoletin of Cassava Roots Produced in Benin Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The chemical contamination of food is among the main public health issues in developing countries. With a view to find new natural bioactive products against fungi responsible for chemical contamination of staple food such as maize, the antifungal activity tests of scopoletin extracted from different components of the cassava root produced in Benin were carried out. The dosage of scopoletin from parts of the root (first skin, second skin, whole root, and flesh) was done by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The scopoletin extract was used to assess the activity of 12 strains (11 strains of maize and a reference strain). The presence of scopoletin was revealed in all components of the cassava root. Scopoletin extracted from the first skin cassava root was the most active both as inhibition of sporulation (52.29 to 87.91%) and the mycelial growth (36.51–80.41%). Scopoletin extract from the cassava root skins showed significant inhibitory activity on the tested strains with fungicide concentration (MFC) between 0.0125 mg/mL and 0.1 mg/mL. The antifungal scopoletin extracted from the cassava root skins may be well beneficial for the fungal control of the storage of maize. Rafiatou Ba, Teou Alfa, Fernand Gbaguidi, Kosi Mawuéna Novidzro, Kokouvi Dotse, Koffi Koudouvo, Ursula Houngue, Marcel T. Donou Hounsode, Kossi Honoré Koumaglo, Yaovi Ameyapoh, and Lamine Baba-Moussa Copyright © 2017 Rafiatou Ba et al. All rights reserved. Growth on Alpha-Ketoglutarate Increases Oxidative Stress Resistance in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Thu, 05 Jan 2017 08:20:15 +0000 Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is an important intermediate in cell metabolism, linking anabolic and catabolic processes. The effect of exogenous AKG on stress resistance in S. cerevisiae cells was studied. The growth on AKG increased resistance of yeast cells to stresses, but the effects depended on AKG concentration and type of stressor. Wild-type yeast cells grown on AKG were more resistant to hydrogen peroxide, menadione, and transition metal ions (Fe2+ and Cu2+) but not to ethanol and heat stress as compared with control ones. Deficiency in SODs or catalases abolished stress-protective effects of AKG. AKG-supplemented growth led to higher values of total metabolic activity, level of low-molecular mass thiols, and activities of catalase and glutathione reductase in wild-type cells compared with the control. The results suggest that exogenous AKG may enhance cell metabolism leading to induction of mild oxidative stress. It turn, it results in activation of antioxidant system that increases resistance of S. cerevisiae cells to H2O2 and other stresses. The presence of genes encoding SODs or catalases is required for the expression of protective effects of AKG. Maria Bayliak, Nadia Burdyliuk, and Volodymyr Lushchak Copyright © 2017 Maria Bayliak et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of Resistance and Bioremediation Ability of Lactobacillus Strains to Lead and Cadmium Wed, 04 Jan 2017 06:46:13 +0000 Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are heavy metals, important environmental pollutants, and potent toxicants to organism. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been reported to remove Cd and Pb from solutions and therefore represent a useful tool for decontamination of food and beverages from heavy metals. Heavy metal ion binding by LAB was reported as metabolism-independent surface process. In this work ten Lactobacillus strains were investigated with respect to hydrophobicity, Lewis acid-base, and electrostatic properties of their outer cell surface in order to characterize their Cd and Pb removal capacity. Seven L. plantarum and L. fermentum strains were shown to remove Cd from culture medium. The metabolism-dependent accumulation mechanism of Cd removal was proposed based on extended character of Cd binding and lack of correlation between any of the surface characteristics and Cd removal. The results of this study should be considered when selecting probiotic strains for people at risk of Cd exposure. Anna V. Kirillova, Anna A. Danilushkina, Denis S. Irisov, Nataliya L. Bruslik, Rawil F. Fakhrullin, Yuri A. Zakharov, Vladimir S. Bukhmin, and Dina R. Yarullina Copyright © 2017 Anna V. Kirillova et al. All rights reserved. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. against Selected Fusarium spp. Tue, 03 Jan 2017 13:30:10 +0000 The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oil (EO) of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. against five Fusarium spp. commonly associated with maize. The essential oil had been extracted by steam distillation in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus from leaves of E. camaldulensis and their chemical composition characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Poisoned food technique was used to determine the percentage inhibition of mycelial growth, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum fungicidal concentration of the EO on the test pathogens. Antifungal activity of different concentrations of the EO was evaluated using disc diffusion method. The most abundant compounds identified in the EO were 1,8-cineole (16.2%), α-pinene (15.6%), α-phellandrene (10.0%), and p-cymene (8.1%). The EO produced complete mycelial growth inhibition in all the test pathogens at a concentration of 7-8 μL/mL after five days of incubation. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of the EO on the test fungi were in the range of 7-8 μL/mL and 8–10 μL/mL, respectively. These findings confirm the fungicidal properties of E. camaldulensis essential oils and their potential use in the management of economically important Fusarium spp. and as possible alternatives to synthetic fungicides. Martin Muthee Gakuubi, Angeline W. Maina, and John M. Wagacha Copyright © 2017 Martin Muthee Gakuubi et al. All rights reserved. The Bacteriomes of Ileal Mucosa and Cecal Content of Broiler Chickens and Turkeys as Revealed by Metagenomic Analysis Wed, 28 Dec 2016 10:05:14 +0000 The gastrointestinal (GI) bacteriome of poultry is important in host nutrition and health, but its diversity and composition remain poorly characterized. In this study we phylogenetically characterized the bacteriome in the cecal contents and ileal mucosa of chickens and turkeys using metagenomics empowered by pyrosequencing technique. >95% coverage of bacterial diversity was achieved except for the turkey ileal mucosa. Collectively, 3,401 and 125 operational taxonomy units (OTU, defined at a 0.03 phylogenetic distance) in chicken, and 1,687 and 16 OTUs in turkey were identified from the cecal content and the ileal mucosa, respectively. Besides those previously reported, 39 and 50 additional genera of bacteria were identified in the chicken and turkey cecal bacteriome, respectively. Although the GI bacteriomes of the same region in both species exhibited greater similarity than the bacteriomes of different regions within each species, broiler chickens and turkeys harbor a distinct intestinal bacteriome. Such difference may suggest different dietary interventions for bacteriome modulation for enhanced nutrient utilization and gut health. The results may also be useful in developing prebiotics, probiotics, and analytical tools (e.g., phylochips). We also determined the variation in the number of OTUs and variability between two independent pyrosequencing runs and two data processing pipelines. Shan Wei, Michael Lilburn, and Zhongtang Yu Copyright © 2016 Shan Wei et al. All rights reserved. Oral Administration of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v Reduces Cortisol Levels in Human Saliva during Examination Induced Stress: A Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Trial Thu, 22 Dec 2016 06:23:13 +0000 Objective. To clarify the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on the salivary cortisol and salivary IgA levels in young adults under examination stress. Design. Forty-one students with an upcoming academic exam were included in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The probiotic bacteria or the placebo product was administered in capsules once a day during 14 days. Saliva was collected and a perceived stress test was filled out at each sampling occasion. Saliva was collected for cortisol analysis by Electrochemiluminescence Immunoassay (ECLI) and salivary IgA was analysed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Abundance of lactobacilli was evaluated by cultivation of saliva on selective medium and identification of L. plantarum 299v was done on randomly selected colonies by a random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) typing. Results. A significant difference in cortisol levels was found between the treatment group and the placebo group (), together with a significant increase in levels of lactobacilli in the treatment group compared with the placebo group (). No significant changes were found for salivary IgA. Conclusion. A probiotic bacterium with ability to reduce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) prohibited increased levels of the stress marker cortisol during the examination period. The registration number of the study is NCT02974894, and the study is registered at Hannah Andersson, Cecilia Tullberg, Siv Ahrné, Kristina Hamberg, Irini Lazou Ahrén, Göran Molin, Mikael Sonesson, and Åsa Håkansson Copyright © 2016 Hannah Andersson et al. All rights reserved. Optimization of the Medium for the Production of Extracellular Amylase by the Pseudomonas stutzeri ISL B5 Isolated from Municipal Solid Waste Tue, 20 Dec 2016 14:10:44 +0000 The management of municipal solid waste is one of the major problems of the present world. The use of microbial enzymes for sustainable management of the solid waste is the need of the time. In the present study, we have isolated a potent amylase producing strain (ISL B5) from municipal solid waste. The strain was identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri (P. stutzeri) both biochemically and by 16S rDNA sequencing. The optimization studies revealed that the strain ISL B5 exhibited maximum activity in the liquid media containing 2% starch (2.77 U/ml), 0.8% peptone (2.77 U/ml), and 0.001% Ca2+ ion (2.49 U/ml) under the pH 7.5 (2.59 U/ml), temperature 40°C (2.63 U/ml), and 25 h of incubation period (2.49 U/ml). The highest activity of crude enzyme has also been optimized at the pH 8 (2.49 U/ml). Prajesh Dutta, Akash Deb, and Sukanta Majumdar Copyright © 2016 Prajesh Dutta et al. All rights reserved. Susceptibility Profiles of Mycobacterium ulcerans Isolates to Streptomycin and Rifampicin in Two Districts of the Eastern Region of Ghana Wed, 14 Dec 2016 11:56:24 +0000 Background. Drug resistance is a major challenge in antibiotic chemotherapy. Assessing resistance profiles of pathogens constitutes an essential surveillance tool in the epidemiology and control of infectious diseases, including Buruli ulcer (BU) disease. With the successful definitive management of BU using rifampicin and streptomycin, little attention had been paid to monitoring emergence of resistant Mycobacterium ulcerans (M. ulcerans) isolates in endemic communities. This study investigated the susceptibility profiles of M. ulcerans isolates from two BU endemic areas in Ghana to streptomycin and rifampicin. Methods. The antibiotic susceptibility of seventy (70) M. ulcerans isolates to rifampicin and streptomycin was determined simultaneously at critical concentrations of 40 µg/mL and 4 µg/mL, respectively, by the Canetti proportion method. Results. Resistance to rifampicin was observed for 12 (17.1%) M. ulcerans isolates tested, whilst 2 (2.9%) showed resistance to streptomycin. None of the isolates tested showed dual resistance to both rifampicin and streptomycin. Conclusion. Outcomes from this study may not be reflective of all BU endemic communities; it, however, provides information on the resistance status of the isolates, which is useful for monitoring of M. ulcerans, as well as BU disease surveillance and control. Enid Owusu, Mercy Jemima Newman, Nana Konama Kotey, Amos Akumwena, and Elizabeth Bannerman Copyright © 2016 Enid Owusu et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Trehalose and Trehalose Transport on the Tolerance of Clostridium perfringens to Environmental Stress in a Wild Type Strain and Its Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Mutant Mon, 12 Dec 2016 12:25:06 +0000 Trehalose has been shown to protect bacterial cells from environmental stress. Its uptake and osmoprotective effect in Clostridium perfringens were investigated by comparing wild type C. perfringens ATCC 13124 with a fluoroquinolone- (gatifloxacin-) resistant mutant. In a chemically defined medium, trehalose and sucrose supported the growth of the wild type but not that of the mutant. Microarray data and qRT-PCR showed that putative genes for the phosphorylation and transport of sucrose and trehalose (via phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems, PTS) and some regulatory genes were downregulated in the mutant. The wild type had greater tolerance than the mutant to salts and low pH; trehalose and sucrose further enhanced the osmotolerance of the wild type to NaCl. Expression of the trehalose-specific PTS was lower in the fluoroquinolone-resistant mutant. Protection of C. perfringens from environmental stress could therefore be correlated with the ability to take up trehalose. Miseon Park, Wilfrid J. Mitchell, and Fatemeh Rafii Copyright © 2016 Miseon Park et al. All rights reserved. Performance of the WHO 2011 TB Symptom Screening Algorithm for Pulmonary TB Diagnosis among HIV-Infected Patients in Gondar University Referral Hospital, Ethiopia Mon, 12 Dec 2016 09:09:24 +0000 The new WHO 2011 guidelines on TB screening among HIV-infected individuals recommend screening using four TB symptoms (current cough, fever, weight loss, and night sweats). This study aimed to assess the performance of WHO 2011 TB symptom screening algorithm for diagnosing pulmonary TB in HIV patients and identify possible risk factors for TB. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2012 to November 2012. A total of 250 HIV-infected patients aged ≥18 years visiting the University of Gondar Hospital, ART clinic, were enrolled. Information about WHO TB clinical symptoms and other known risk factors for TB was collected using structured questionnaire. Spot-morning-spot sputum samples were collected and direct AFB microscopy, sputum culture, and RD9 molecular typing were performed. Statistical data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 20.0 software. Of 250 study participants, fever was reported in 169 (67.6%), whereas cough and night sweats were reported in 167 (66.8%) and 152 (60.8%), respectively. A total of 11 (4.4%) TB cases were identified. Of these, 82% (9/11) TB patients reported cough, so that the negative predictive value was 98%. In addition, 66% (158/239) TB negative patients reported cough, so that positive predictive value of cough was 5%. According to the new WHOTB symptom screening algorithm, out of 250 HIV-infected persons, 83% (5/6) have been investigated by TB symptom screening and AFB smear microscopy. Therefore, the 2011 WHO TB symptom screening tool for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB is likely to reduce the diagnostic delay and lower TB morbidity and mortality rate particularly in HIV prevalent settings. Martha Alemayehu Menberu Copyright © 2016 Martha Alemayehu Menberu. All rights reserved. Detection of Anti-Leptospira IgM Antibody in Serum Samples of Suspected Patients Visiting National Public Health Laboratory, Teku, Kathmandu Sun, 04 Dec 2016 08:42:46 +0000 Leptospirosis is a globally distributed zoonosis with varied clinical outcomes and multiorgan involvement in humans. In this study conducted from July 2011 to December 2011, 178 serum samples from patients suspected of leptospirosis were tested by Panbio IgM ELISA at National Public Health Laboratory, Kathmandu, out of which 51 (28.65%) were positive for anti-Leptospira IgM antibody. Leptospirosis was more common in people in their 2nd and 3rd decades of their life which together comprised 56.86% of the total positive cases. Most of those tested positive were farmers followed by students and housewives. Both animal contact and water contact seemed to play significant roles in disease transmission. Symptoms were vague with the most common being fever, headache, myalgia, abdominal pain, vomiting, jaundice, and diarrhoea. Life style heavily dominated by agronomical and farming activities in Nepal is conducive to leptospirosis transmission. Leptospirosis seems to be a significant public health problem in Nepal but is underestimated. In resource poor countries like Nepal where laboratories performing MAT or maintaining cultures are rarely available, serological test like ELISA could well depict the scenario of the disease prevalence. Krishna Prasad Dahal, Supriya Sharma, Jeevan Bahadur Sherchand, Bishnu Prasad Upadhyay, and Dwij Raj Bhatta Copyright © 2016 Krishna Prasad Dahal et al. All rights reserved. Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Bacterial Isolates from Pus Samples in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Punjab, India Sun, 30 Oct 2016 09:42:30 +0000 We determined the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibilities patterns of bacterial isolates from pus samples collected from patients in a tertiary care hospital of Punjab, India. E. coli was the most prevalent pathogen (51.2%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.8%), Citrobacter spp. (3.5%), Acinetobacter baumannii (2.3%), Proteus mirabilis (2.3%), and Streptococcus spp. (2.3%). E. coli, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, and Citrobacter isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics including higher generation cephalosporins. S. aureus and Streptococcus isolates were sensitive to cloxacillin and vancomycin. However, P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis, and Streptococcus isolates were found to be less resistant to the spectrum of antibiotics tested. Overall, our findings indicate the prevalence of resistance to different classes of antibiotics in bacterial isolates from pus infections and hence highlight the need for effective surveillance, regulator reporting, and antibiogram-guided antibiotic prescription. Rugira Trojan, Lovely Razdan, and Nasib Singh Copyright © 2016 Rugira Trojan et al. All rights reserved. Audit of Helicobacter pylori Testing in Microbiology Laboratories in England: To Inform Compliance with NICE Guidance and the Feasibility of Routine Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Tue, 18 Oct 2016 07:13:31 +0000 Introduction. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidance recommends that dyspeptic patients are tested for Helicobacter pylori using a urea breath test, stool antigen test, or serology. Antibiotic resistance in H. pylori is globally increasing, but treatment in England is rarely guided by susceptibility testing or surveillance. Aims. To determine compliance of microbiology laboratories in England with NICE guidance and whether laboratories perform culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST). Methods. In 2015, 170 accredited English microbiology laboratories were surveyed, by email. Results. 121/170 (71%) laboratories responded; 96% provided H. pylori testing (78% on site). 94% provided H. pylori diagnosis using stool antigen; only four provided serology as their noninvasive test; 3/4 of these encouraged urea breath tests in their acute trusts. Only 22/94 (23%) of the laboratories performed H. pylori cultures from gastric biopsies on site; 9/22 performed AST, but the vast majority processed less than one specimen/week. Conclusions. Only five laboratories in England do not comply with NICE guidance; these will need the guidance reinforced. National surveillance needs to be implemented; culture-based AST would need to be centralised. Moving forward, detection of resistance in H. pylori from stool specimens using molecular methods (PCR) needs to be explored. Rosalie Allison, Donna M. Lecky, Megan Bull, Kim Turner, Gauri Godbole, and Cliodna A. M. McNulty Copyright © 2016 Rosalie Allison et al. All rights reserved. Biological Characteristics and Antimicrobial Activity of Endophytic Streptomyces sp. TQR12-4 Isolated from Elite Citrus nobilis Cultivar Ham Yen of Vietnam Tue, 04 Oct 2016 11:21:27 +0000 Ham Yen orange (Citrus nobilis Lour) is the highly valuable commercial fruit of Vietnam. With the blooming of fruit production and farming area, this specialty crop is facing threats from several serious diseases; therefore the search for new effective biocontrollers is required to prevent the existing excessive use of fertilizers and plant protection chemicals. Endophytic actinomycetes are of great scientific interest due to their high potential of application in agriculture and pharmaceutical research. In this work, endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from a native orange species of Northeast mountainous province Tuyen Quang. Among 49 isolates obtained, the isolate TQR12-4 strongly inhibited test pathogens Colletotrichum truncatum, Geotrichum candidum, Fusarium oxysporum, and F. udum. This isolate gave comparatively high biomass yields on different substrates, for example, carboxy methyl cellulose, starch, protein, and chitin, within a wide range of temperature from 15 to 45°C and pH from 4 to 10. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA gene showed that TQR12-4 shared 99% similarity to Streptomyces prasinopilosus; however, it slightly differed from the latter in spore morphology and hence was named as Streptomyces sp. TQR12-4. A thermostable antifungal substance of nonpeptide nature produced by Streptomyces sp. TQR12-4 had MIC against Fusarium udum of 100 μg/mL and 400 μg/mL respective to extract fractions and . Phan Thi Hong-Thao, Nguyen Vu Mai-Linh, Nguyen Thi Hong-Lien, and Nguyen Van Hieu Copyright © 2016 Phan Thi Hong-Thao et al. All rights reserved. Antibiotic Resistance of Diverse Bacteria from Aquaculture in Borneo Sun, 25 Sep 2016 11:15:54 +0000 The administration of antimicrobials in aquaculture provides a selective pressure creating a reservoir of multiple resistant bacteria in the cultured fish and shrimps as well as the aquaculture environment. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of antibiotic resistance in aquaculture products and aquaculture’s surrounding environment in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Ninety-four identified bacterial isolates constituted of 17 genera were isolated from sediment, water, and cultured organisms (fish and shrimp) in selected aquaculture farms. These isolates were tested for their antibiotic resistance against 22 antibiotics from several groups using the disk diffusion method. The results show that the highest resistance was observed towards streptomycin (85%, ), while the lowest resistance was towards gentamicin (1.1%, ). The multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) index of the isolates tested ranged between 0 and 0.63. It was suggested that isolates with MAR index > 0.2 were recovered from sources with high risk of antibiotic resistant contamination. This study revealed low level of antibiotic resistance in the aquaculture bacterial isolates except for streptomycin and ampicillin (>50% resistance, ) which have been used in the aquaculture industry for several decades. Antibiotic resistant patterns should be continuously monitored to predict the emergence and widespread of MAR. Effective action is needed to keep the new resistance from further developing and spreading. M. M. Kathleen, L. Samuel, C. Felecia, E. L. Reagan, A. Kasing, M. Lesley, and S. C. Toh Copyright © 2016 M. M. Kathleen et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Some Ecological Factors on Fecal Contamination of Drinking Water by Diarrheagenic Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Zagazig City, Egypt Tue, 20 Sep 2016 14:26:33 +0000 Fecal contamination of drinking water is a major health problem which accounts for many cases of diarrhea mainly in infants and foreigners. This contamination is a complex interaction of many parameters. Antibiotic resistance among bacterial isolates complicates the problem. The study was done to identify fecal contamination of drinking water by Diarrheagenic Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Zagazig city and to trace reasons for such contamination, three hundred potable water samples were investigated for E. coli existence. Locations of E. coli positive samples were investigated in relation to population density, water source, and type of water pipe. Sixteen E. coli strains were isolated. Antibiotic sensitivity was done and enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, and enterohaemorrhagic virulence genes were investigated by PCR. Probability of fecal contamination correlated with higher population density, with increased distance from Zagazig water plant, and with asbestos cement water pipes. Resistance to at least one antimicrobial drug was found in all isolates. Virulence genes were detected in a rate of 26.27%, 13.13%, 20%, 6.67%, and 33.33% for LT, ST, stx1, stx2, and eae genes, respectively. This relatively high frequency of fecal contamination points towards the high risk of developing diarrhea by antibiotic resistant DEC in low socioeconomic communities particularly with old fashion distribution systems. Ahmed Elsadek Fakhr, Maha Kamal Gohar, and Amal Hassan Atta Copyright © 2016 Ahmed Elsadek Fakhr et al. All rights reserved. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) against Selected Plant Pathogenic Bacteria Sun, 18 Sep 2016 09:46:19 +0000 The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils (EOs) of Tagetes minuta against three phytopathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis. The essential oils were extracted using steam distillation method in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus while antibacterial activity of the EOs was evaluated by disc diffusion method. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for analysis of the chemical profile of the EOs. Twenty compounds corresponding to 96% of the total essential oils were identified with 70% and 30% of the identified components being monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, respectively. The essential oils of T. minuta revealed promising antibacterial activities against the test pathogens with Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola being the most susceptible with mean inhibition zone diameters of 41.83 and 44.83 mm after 24 and 48 hours, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the EOs on the test bacteria were in the ranges of 24–48 mg/mL and 95–190 mg/mL, respectively. These findings provide a scientific basis for the use of T. minuta essential oils as a botanical pesticide for management of phytopathogenic bacteria. Martin Muthee Gakuubi, John M. Wagacha, Saifuddin F. Dossaji, and Wycliffe Wanzala Copyright © 2016 Martin Muthee Gakuubi et al. All rights reserved.