International Journal of Microbiology The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases-Producing Microorganisms in Patients Admitted at KRRH, Southwestern Uganda Wed, 08 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing pathogenic bacteria at Kabale Regional Referral Hospital (KRRH), located in southwestern Uganda, is of great concern: a phenomenon that worries clinicians and other healthcare workers due to the serious threat they pose to patients. This current study aimed at determining the phenotypic detection of ESBL-producing strains of E. coli, Klebsiella sp., and Proteus sp. isolated from clinical specimens and their prevalence in patients admitted at KRRH. We used combined disc diffusion technique to detect and establish the presence of ESBLs-producing bacteria. Of the 100 tested bacterial isolates, 89 (89%) were identified as ESBL-producing bacteria. Klebsiella sp. predominated in the samples (46 (52%)), presenting the highest frequency of ESBLs producing followed by E. coli (39 (44%)) and Proteus mirabilis (4 (4.5%)) from the combined disk diffusion. Baguma Andrew, Atek Kagirita, and Joel Bazira Copyright © 2017 Baguma Andrew et al. All rights reserved. Urinary Tract Infections among HIV-Positive Pregnant Women in Mwanza City, Tanzania, Are High and Predicted by Low CD4+ Count Tue, 31 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Introduction. Urinary tract infection (UTI) among pregnant women can lead to adverse maternal and foetal outcomes. UTI has been widely studied in the general obstetric population in Tanzania; the present study evaluated the magnitude, antimicrobial resistance, and predictors of UTI among HIV-positive pregnant women. Methods. Between March and May 2016 midstream urine samples from 234 women attending prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) clinics were analyzed using standard methods. Data was analyzed by STATA version 11.0. Results. The prevalence of UTI was 21.4%, 50/234 [95% CI: 16.1–26.6]. The asymptomatically significant bacteriuria was higher than symptomatically significant bacteriuria (16.6% versus 4.7%, ). On multivariable logistic regression analysis, single marital status (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.1–6.1, and ), low CD4+ counts of <200/μL (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.1–7.7, and ), and having UTI symptoms (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.1–6.0, and ) were independent predictors of UTI. Escherichia coli predominated (57.7%) and exhibited a low prevalence of resistance to nitrofurantoin (16.7%), gentamicin (10.0%), and ceftriaxone (13.3%). Four (13.3%) of these were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers. Conclusions. A considerable proportion of HIV-positive pregnant women in Mwanza have significant bacteriuria which calls for the need to introduce routine UTI screening at PMTCT clinics to guide specific treatment and prevent associated complications. Tito Chaula, Jeremiah Seni, Nhandi Ng’walida, Alphaxaid Kajura, Mariam M. Mirambo, Rebekah DeVinney, and Stephen E. Mshana Copyright © 2017 Tito Chaula et al. All rights reserved. Molecular Characteristics and Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Klebsiella Isolates in Mthatha, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa Mon, 30 Jan 2017 08:00:13 +0000 The increase in the incidence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing Klebsiella species has become a serious problem worldwide, because of their incrimination in antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study is to investigate the resistance genes responsible for ESBL-producing Klebsiella species and carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella (CRE) isolated in Mthatha and to study their epidemiology. A prospective, descriptive study of 202 nonrepetitive samples from patients was obtained from Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital. The cultured Klebsiella isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests and the polymerase chain reaction of , , , , and genes. Overall K. pneumoniae were the majority with 169 (83.7%) species isolates, followed by K. oxytoca with 29 (14.4%), while K. ozaenae and Raoultella ornithinolytica were 2 (0.9%) each. The prevalence of ESBL production in all Klebsiella species was 117 (57.9%). ESBL-genotypic resistance is driven in Mthatha by 121 (77.1%) followed by 105 (66.9%) and at 89 (56.7%). The most common ESBL genotype combination among the Klebsiella was + at 79 (50.3%). There is a steady increase in the rate of ESBL genes in the last five years. Sandeep Vasaikar, Larry Obi, Isaac Morobe, and Mary Bisi-Johnson Copyright © 2017 Sandeep Vasaikar et al. All rights reserved. Maize Fungal Growth Control with Scopoletin of Cassava Roots Produced in Benin Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The chemical contamination of food is among the main public health issues in developing countries. With a view to find new natural bioactive products against fungi responsible for chemical contamination of staple food such as maize, the antifungal activity tests of scopoletin extracted from different components of the cassava root produced in Benin were carried out. The dosage of scopoletin from parts of the root (first skin, second skin, whole root, and flesh) was done by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The scopoletin extract was used to assess the activity of 12 strains (11 strains of maize and a reference strain). The presence of scopoletin was revealed in all components of the cassava root. Scopoletin extracted from the first skin cassava root was the most active both as inhibition of sporulation (52.29 to 87.91%) and the mycelial growth (36.51–80.41%). Scopoletin extract from the cassava root skins showed significant inhibitory activity on the tested strains with fungicide concentration (MFC) between 0.0125 mg/mL and 0.1 mg/mL. The antifungal scopoletin extracted from the cassava root skins may be well beneficial for the fungal control of the storage of maize. Rafiatou Ba, Teou Alfa, Fernand Gbaguidi, Kosi Mawuéna Novidzro, Kokouvi Dotse, Koffi Koudouvo, Ursula Houngue, Marcel T. Donou Hounsode, Kossi Honoré Koumaglo, Yaovi Ameyapoh, and Lamine Baba-Moussa Copyright © 2017 Rafiatou Ba et al. All rights reserved. Growth on Alpha-Ketoglutarate Increases Oxidative Stress Resistance in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Thu, 05 Jan 2017 08:20:15 +0000 Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is an important intermediate in cell metabolism, linking anabolic and catabolic processes. The effect of exogenous AKG on stress resistance in S. cerevisiae cells was studied. The growth on AKG increased resistance of yeast cells to stresses, but the effects depended on AKG concentration and type of stressor. Wild-type yeast cells grown on AKG were more resistant to hydrogen peroxide, menadione, and transition metal ions (Fe2+ and Cu2+) but not to ethanol and heat stress as compared with control ones. Deficiency in SODs or catalases abolished stress-protective effects of AKG. AKG-supplemented growth led to higher values of total metabolic activity, level of low-molecular mass thiols, and activities of catalase and glutathione reductase in wild-type cells compared with the control. The results suggest that exogenous AKG may enhance cell metabolism leading to induction of mild oxidative stress. It turn, it results in activation of antioxidant system that increases resistance of S. cerevisiae cells to H2O2 and other stresses. The presence of genes encoding SODs or catalases is required for the expression of protective effects of AKG. Maria Bayliak, Nadia Burdyliuk, and Volodymyr Lushchak Copyright © 2017 Maria Bayliak et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of Resistance and Bioremediation Ability of Lactobacillus Strains to Lead and Cadmium Wed, 04 Jan 2017 06:46:13 +0000 Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are heavy metals, important environmental pollutants, and potent toxicants to organism. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been reported to remove Cd and Pb from solutions and therefore represent a useful tool for decontamination of food and beverages from heavy metals. Heavy metal ion binding by LAB was reported as metabolism-independent surface process. In this work ten Lactobacillus strains were investigated with respect to hydrophobicity, Lewis acid-base, and electrostatic properties of their outer cell surface in order to characterize their Cd and Pb removal capacity. Seven L. plantarum and L. fermentum strains were shown to remove Cd from culture medium. The metabolism-dependent accumulation mechanism of Cd removal was proposed based on extended character of Cd binding and lack of correlation between any of the surface characteristics and Cd removal. The results of this study should be considered when selecting probiotic strains for people at risk of Cd exposure. Anna V. Kirillova, Anna A. Danilushkina, Denis S. Irisov, Nataliya L. Bruslik, Rawil F. Fakhrullin, Yuri A. Zakharov, Vladimir S. Bukhmin, and Dina R. Yarullina Copyright © 2017 Anna V. Kirillova et al. All rights reserved. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. against Selected Fusarium spp. Tue, 03 Jan 2017 13:30:10 +0000 The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oil (EO) of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. against five Fusarium spp. commonly associated with maize. The essential oil had been extracted by steam distillation in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus from leaves of E. camaldulensis and their chemical composition characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Poisoned food technique was used to determine the percentage inhibition of mycelial growth, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum fungicidal concentration of the EO on the test pathogens. Antifungal activity of different concentrations of the EO was evaluated using disc diffusion method. The most abundant compounds identified in the EO were 1,8-cineole (16.2%), α-pinene (15.6%), α-phellandrene (10.0%), and p-cymene (8.1%). The EO produced complete mycelial growth inhibition in all the test pathogens at a concentration of 7-8 μL/mL after five days of incubation. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of the EO on the test fungi were in the range of 7-8 μL/mL and 8–10 μL/mL, respectively. These findings confirm the fungicidal properties of E. camaldulensis essential oils and their potential use in the management of economically important Fusarium spp. and as possible alternatives to synthetic fungicides. Martin Muthee Gakuubi, Angeline W. Maina, and John M. Wagacha Copyright © 2017 Martin Muthee Gakuubi et al. All rights reserved. The Bacteriomes of Ileal Mucosa and Cecal Content of Broiler Chickens and Turkeys as Revealed by Metagenomic Analysis Wed, 28 Dec 2016 10:05:14 +0000 The gastrointestinal (GI) bacteriome of poultry is important in host nutrition and health, but its diversity and composition remain poorly characterized. In this study we phylogenetically characterized the bacteriome in the cecal contents and ileal mucosa of chickens and turkeys using metagenomics empowered by pyrosequencing technique. >95% coverage of bacterial diversity was achieved except for the turkey ileal mucosa. Collectively, 3,401 and 125 operational taxonomy units (OTU, defined at a 0.03 phylogenetic distance) in chicken, and 1,687 and 16 OTUs in turkey were identified from the cecal content and the ileal mucosa, respectively. Besides those previously reported, 39 and 50 additional genera of bacteria were identified in the chicken and turkey cecal bacteriome, respectively. Although the GI bacteriomes of the same region in both species exhibited greater similarity than the bacteriomes of different regions within each species, broiler chickens and turkeys harbor a distinct intestinal bacteriome. Such difference may suggest different dietary interventions for bacteriome modulation for enhanced nutrient utilization and gut health. The results may also be useful in developing prebiotics, probiotics, and analytical tools (e.g., phylochips). We also determined the variation in the number of OTUs and variability between two independent pyrosequencing runs and two data processing pipelines. Shan Wei, Michael Lilburn, and Zhongtang Yu Copyright © 2016 Shan Wei et al. All rights reserved. Oral Administration of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v Reduces Cortisol Levels in Human Saliva during Examination Induced Stress: A Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Trial Thu, 22 Dec 2016 06:23:13 +0000 Objective. To clarify the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on the salivary cortisol and salivary IgA levels in young adults under examination stress. Design. Forty-one students with an upcoming academic exam were included in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The probiotic bacteria or the placebo product was administered in capsules once a day during 14 days. Saliva was collected and a perceived stress test was filled out at each sampling occasion. Saliva was collected for cortisol analysis by Electrochemiluminescence Immunoassay (ECLI) and salivary IgA was analysed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Abundance of lactobacilli was evaluated by cultivation of saliva on selective medium and identification of L. plantarum 299v was done on randomly selected colonies by a random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) typing. Results. A significant difference in cortisol levels was found between the treatment group and the placebo group (), together with a significant increase in levels of lactobacilli in the treatment group compared with the placebo group (). No significant changes were found for salivary IgA. Conclusion. A probiotic bacterium with ability to reduce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) prohibited increased levels of the stress marker cortisol during the examination period. The registration number of the study is NCT02974894, and the study is registered at Hannah Andersson, Cecilia Tullberg, Siv Ahrné, Kristina Hamberg, Irini Lazou Ahrén, Göran Molin, Mikael Sonesson, and Åsa Håkansson Copyright © 2016 Hannah Andersson et al. All rights reserved. Optimization of the Medium for the Production of Extracellular Amylase by the Pseudomonas stutzeri ISL B5 Isolated from Municipal Solid Waste Tue, 20 Dec 2016 14:10:44 +0000 The management of municipal solid waste is one of the major problems of the present world. The use of microbial enzymes for sustainable management of the solid waste is the need of the time. In the present study, we have isolated a potent amylase producing strain (ISL B5) from municipal solid waste. The strain was identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri (P. stutzeri) both biochemically and by 16S rDNA sequencing. The optimization studies revealed that the strain ISL B5 exhibited maximum activity in the liquid media containing 2% starch (2.77 U/ml), 0.8% peptone (2.77 U/ml), and 0.001% Ca2+ ion (2.49 U/ml) under the pH 7.5 (2.59 U/ml), temperature 40°C (2.63 U/ml), and 25 h of incubation period (2.49 U/ml). The highest activity of crude enzyme has also been optimized at the pH 8 (2.49 U/ml). Prajesh Dutta, Akash Deb, and Sukanta Majumdar Copyright © 2016 Prajesh Dutta et al. All rights reserved. Susceptibility Profiles of Mycobacterium ulcerans Isolates to Streptomycin and Rifampicin in Two Districts of the Eastern Region of Ghana Wed, 14 Dec 2016 11:56:24 +0000 Background. Drug resistance is a major challenge in antibiotic chemotherapy. Assessing resistance profiles of pathogens constitutes an essential surveillance tool in the epidemiology and control of infectious diseases, including Buruli ulcer (BU) disease. With the successful definitive management of BU using rifampicin and streptomycin, little attention had been paid to monitoring emergence of resistant Mycobacterium ulcerans (M. ulcerans) isolates in endemic communities. This study investigated the susceptibility profiles of M. ulcerans isolates from two BU endemic areas in Ghana to streptomycin and rifampicin. Methods. The antibiotic susceptibility of seventy (70) M. ulcerans isolates to rifampicin and streptomycin was determined simultaneously at critical concentrations of 40 µg/mL and 4 µg/mL, respectively, by the Canetti proportion method. Results. Resistance to rifampicin was observed for 12 (17.1%) M. ulcerans isolates tested, whilst 2 (2.9%) showed resistance to streptomycin. None of the isolates tested showed dual resistance to both rifampicin and streptomycin. Conclusion. Outcomes from this study may not be reflective of all BU endemic communities; it, however, provides information on the resistance status of the isolates, which is useful for monitoring of M. ulcerans, as well as BU disease surveillance and control. Enid Owusu, Mercy Jemima Newman, Nana Konama Kotey, Amos Akumwena, and Elizabeth Bannerman Copyright © 2016 Enid Owusu et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Trehalose and Trehalose Transport on the Tolerance of Clostridium perfringens to Environmental Stress in a Wild Type Strain and Its Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Mutant Mon, 12 Dec 2016 12:25:06 +0000 Trehalose has been shown to protect bacterial cells from environmental stress. Its uptake and osmoprotective effect in Clostridium perfringens were investigated by comparing wild type C. perfringens ATCC 13124 with a fluoroquinolone- (gatifloxacin-) resistant mutant. In a chemically defined medium, trehalose and sucrose supported the growth of the wild type but not that of the mutant. Microarray data and qRT-PCR showed that putative genes for the phosphorylation and transport of sucrose and trehalose (via phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems, PTS) and some regulatory genes were downregulated in the mutant. The wild type had greater tolerance than the mutant to salts and low pH; trehalose and sucrose further enhanced the osmotolerance of the wild type to NaCl. Expression of the trehalose-specific PTS was lower in the fluoroquinolone-resistant mutant. Protection of C. perfringens from environmental stress could therefore be correlated with the ability to take up trehalose. Miseon Park, Wilfrid J. Mitchell, and Fatemeh Rafii Copyright © 2016 Miseon Park et al. All rights reserved. Performance of the WHO 2011 TB Symptom Screening Algorithm for Pulmonary TB Diagnosis among HIV-Infected Patients in Gondar University Referral Hospital, Ethiopia Mon, 12 Dec 2016 09:09:24 +0000 The new WHO 2011 guidelines on TB screening among HIV-infected individuals recommend screening using four TB symptoms (current cough, fever, weight loss, and night sweats). This study aimed to assess the performance of WHO 2011 TB symptom screening algorithm for diagnosing pulmonary TB in HIV patients and identify possible risk factors for TB. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2012 to November 2012. A total of 250 HIV-infected patients aged ≥18 years visiting the University of Gondar Hospital, ART clinic, were enrolled. Information about WHO TB clinical symptoms and other known risk factors for TB was collected using structured questionnaire. Spot-morning-spot sputum samples were collected and direct AFB microscopy, sputum culture, and RD9 molecular typing were performed. Statistical data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 20.0 software. Of 250 study participants, fever was reported in 169 (67.6%), whereas cough and night sweats were reported in 167 (66.8%) and 152 (60.8%), respectively. A total of 11 (4.4%) TB cases were identified. Of these, 82% (9/11) TB patients reported cough, so that the negative predictive value was 98%. In addition, 66% (158/239) TB negative patients reported cough, so that positive predictive value of cough was 5%. According to the new WHOTB symptom screening algorithm, out of 250 HIV-infected persons, 83% (5/6) have been investigated by TB symptom screening and AFB smear microscopy. Therefore, the 2011 WHO TB symptom screening tool for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB is likely to reduce the diagnostic delay and lower TB morbidity and mortality rate particularly in HIV prevalent settings. Martha Alemayehu Menberu Copyright © 2016 Martha Alemayehu Menberu. All rights reserved. Detection of Anti-Leptospira IgM Antibody in Serum Samples of Suspected Patients Visiting National Public Health Laboratory, Teku, Kathmandu Sun, 04 Dec 2016 08:42:46 +0000 Leptospirosis is a globally distributed zoonosis with varied clinical outcomes and multiorgan involvement in humans. In this study conducted from July 2011 to December 2011, 178 serum samples from patients suspected of leptospirosis were tested by Panbio IgM ELISA at National Public Health Laboratory, Kathmandu, out of which 51 (28.65%) were positive for anti-Leptospira IgM antibody. Leptospirosis was more common in people in their 2nd and 3rd decades of their life which together comprised 56.86% of the total positive cases. Most of those tested positive were farmers followed by students and housewives. Both animal contact and water contact seemed to play significant roles in disease transmission. Symptoms were vague with the most common being fever, headache, myalgia, abdominal pain, vomiting, jaundice, and diarrhoea. Life style heavily dominated by agronomical and farming activities in Nepal is conducive to leptospirosis transmission. Leptospirosis seems to be a significant public health problem in Nepal but is underestimated. In resource poor countries like Nepal where laboratories performing MAT or maintaining cultures are rarely available, serological test like ELISA could well depict the scenario of the disease prevalence. Krishna Prasad Dahal, Supriya Sharma, Jeevan Bahadur Sherchand, Bishnu Prasad Upadhyay, and Dwij Raj Bhatta Copyright © 2016 Krishna Prasad Dahal et al. All rights reserved. Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Bacterial Isolates from Pus Samples in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Punjab, India Sun, 30 Oct 2016 09:42:30 +0000 We determined the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibilities patterns of bacterial isolates from pus samples collected from patients in a tertiary care hospital of Punjab, India. E. coli was the most prevalent pathogen (51.2%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.8%), Citrobacter spp. (3.5%), Acinetobacter baumannii (2.3%), Proteus mirabilis (2.3%), and Streptococcus spp. (2.3%). E. coli, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, and Citrobacter isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics including higher generation cephalosporins. S. aureus and Streptococcus isolates were sensitive to cloxacillin and vancomycin. However, P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis, and Streptococcus isolates were found to be less resistant to the spectrum of antibiotics tested. Overall, our findings indicate the prevalence of resistance to different classes of antibiotics in bacterial isolates from pus infections and hence highlight the need for effective surveillance, regulator reporting, and antibiogram-guided antibiotic prescription. Rugira Trojan, Lovely Razdan, and Nasib Singh Copyright © 2016 Rugira Trojan et al. All rights reserved. Audit of Helicobacter pylori Testing in Microbiology Laboratories in England: To Inform Compliance with NICE Guidance and the Feasibility of Routine Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Tue, 18 Oct 2016 07:13:31 +0000 Introduction. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidance recommends that dyspeptic patients are tested for Helicobacter pylori using a urea breath test, stool antigen test, or serology. Antibiotic resistance in H. pylori is globally increasing, but treatment in England is rarely guided by susceptibility testing or surveillance. Aims. To determine compliance of microbiology laboratories in England with NICE guidance and whether laboratories perform culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST). Methods. In 2015, 170 accredited English microbiology laboratories were surveyed, by email. Results. 121/170 (71%) laboratories responded; 96% provided H. pylori testing (78% on site). 94% provided H. pylori diagnosis using stool antigen; only four provided serology as their noninvasive test; 3/4 of these encouraged urea breath tests in their acute trusts. Only 22/94 (23%) of the laboratories performed H. pylori cultures from gastric biopsies on site; 9/22 performed AST, but the vast majority processed less than one specimen/week. Conclusions. Only five laboratories in England do not comply with NICE guidance; these will need the guidance reinforced. National surveillance needs to be implemented; culture-based AST would need to be centralised. Moving forward, detection of resistance in H. pylori from stool specimens using molecular methods (PCR) needs to be explored. Rosalie Allison, Donna M. Lecky, Megan Bull, Kim Turner, Gauri Godbole, and Cliodna A. M. McNulty Copyright © 2016 Rosalie Allison et al. All rights reserved. Biological Characteristics and Antimicrobial Activity of Endophytic Streptomyces sp. TQR12-4 Isolated from Elite Citrus nobilis Cultivar Ham Yen of Vietnam Tue, 04 Oct 2016 11:21:27 +0000 Ham Yen orange (Citrus nobilis Lour) is the highly valuable commercial fruit of Vietnam. With the blooming of fruit production and farming area, this specialty crop is facing threats from several serious diseases; therefore the search for new effective biocontrollers is required to prevent the existing excessive use of fertilizers and plant protection chemicals. Endophytic actinomycetes are of great scientific interest due to their high potential of application in agriculture and pharmaceutical research. In this work, endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from a native orange species of Northeast mountainous province Tuyen Quang. Among 49 isolates obtained, the isolate TQR12-4 strongly inhibited test pathogens Colletotrichum truncatum, Geotrichum candidum, Fusarium oxysporum, and F. udum. This isolate gave comparatively high biomass yields on different substrates, for example, carboxy methyl cellulose, starch, protein, and chitin, within a wide range of temperature from 15 to 45°C and pH from 4 to 10. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA gene showed that TQR12-4 shared 99% similarity to Streptomyces prasinopilosus; however, it slightly differed from the latter in spore morphology and hence was named as Streptomyces sp. TQR12-4. A thermostable antifungal substance of nonpeptide nature produced by Streptomyces sp. TQR12-4 had MIC against Fusarium udum of 100 μg/mL and 400 μg/mL respective to extract fractions and . Phan Thi Hong-Thao, Nguyen Vu Mai-Linh, Nguyen Thi Hong-Lien, and Nguyen Van Hieu Copyright © 2016 Phan Thi Hong-Thao et al. All rights reserved. Antibiotic Resistance of Diverse Bacteria from Aquaculture in Borneo Sun, 25 Sep 2016 11:15:54 +0000 The administration of antimicrobials in aquaculture provides a selective pressure creating a reservoir of multiple resistant bacteria in the cultured fish and shrimps as well as the aquaculture environment. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of antibiotic resistance in aquaculture products and aquaculture’s surrounding environment in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Ninety-four identified bacterial isolates constituted of 17 genera were isolated from sediment, water, and cultured organisms (fish and shrimp) in selected aquaculture farms. These isolates were tested for their antibiotic resistance against 22 antibiotics from several groups using the disk diffusion method. The results show that the highest resistance was observed towards streptomycin (85%, ), while the lowest resistance was towards gentamicin (1.1%, ). The multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) index of the isolates tested ranged between 0 and 0.63. It was suggested that isolates with MAR index > 0.2 were recovered from sources with high risk of antibiotic resistant contamination. This study revealed low level of antibiotic resistance in the aquaculture bacterial isolates except for streptomycin and ampicillin (>50% resistance, ) which have been used in the aquaculture industry for several decades. Antibiotic resistant patterns should be continuously monitored to predict the emergence and widespread of MAR. Effective action is needed to keep the new resistance from further developing and spreading. M. M. Kathleen, L. Samuel, C. Felecia, E. L. Reagan, A. Kasing, M. Lesley, and S. C. Toh Copyright © 2016 M. M. Kathleen et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Some Ecological Factors on Fecal Contamination of Drinking Water by Diarrheagenic Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Zagazig City, Egypt Tue, 20 Sep 2016 14:26:33 +0000 Fecal contamination of drinking water is a major health problem which accounts for many cases of diarrhea mainly in infants and foreigners. This contamination is a complex interaction of many parameters. Antibiotic resistance among bacterial isolates complicates the problem. The study was done to identify fecal contamination of drinking water by Diarrheagenic Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Zagazig city and to trace reasons for such contamination, three hundred potable water samples were investigated for E. coli existence. Locations of E. coli positive samples were investigated in relation to population density, water source, and type of water pipe. Sixteen E. coli strains were isolated. Antibiotic sensitivity was done and enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, and enterohaemorrhagic virulence genes were investigated by PCR. Probability of fecal contamination correlated with higher population density, with increased distance from Zagazig water plant, and with asbestos cement water pipes. Resistance to at least one antimicrobial drug was found in all isolates. Virulence genes were detected in a rate of 26.27%, 13.13%, 20%, 6.67%, and 33.33% for LT, ST, stx1, stx2, and eae genes, respectively. This relatively high frequency of fecal contamination points towards the high risk of developing diarrhea by antibiotic resistant DEC in low socioeconomic communities particularly with old fashion distribution systems. Ahmed Elsadek Fakhr, Maha Kamal Gohar, and Amal Hassan Atta Copyright © 2016 Ahmed Elsadek Fakhr et al. All rights reserved. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) against Selected Plant Pathogenic Bacteria Sun, 18 Sep 2016 09:46:19 +0000 The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils (EOs) of Tagetes minuta against three phytopathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis. The essential oils were extracted using steam distillation method in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus while antibacterial activity of the EOs was evaluated by disc diffusion method. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for analysis of the chemical profile of the EOs. Twenty compounds corresponding to 96% of the total essential oils were identified with 70% and 30% of the identified components being monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, respectively. The essential oils of T. minuta revealed promising antibacterial activities against the test pathogens with Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola being the most susceptible with mean inhibition zone diameters of 41.83 and 44.83 mm after 24 and 48 hours, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the EOs on the test bacteria were in the ranges of 24–48 mg/mL and 95–190 mg/mL, respectively. These findings provide a scientific basis for the use of T. minuta essential oils as a botanical pesticide for management of phytopathogenic bacteria. Martin Muthee Gakuubi, John M. Wagacha, Saifuddin F. Dossaji, and Wycliffe Wanzala Copyright © 2016 Martin Muthee Gakuubi et al. All rights reserved. Comment on “Bacteria in Cancer Therapy: Renaissance of an Old Concept” Wed, 14 Sep 2016 09:23:29 +0000 Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi Copyright © 2016 Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi. All rights reserved. Bacterial Etiology and Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections in a Cameroonian City Wed, 07 Sep 2016 16:45:28 +0000 Introduction. Community-acquired urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are usually treated empirically. Geographical variations in etiologic agents and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns are common. Knowledge of antibiotic resistance trends is important for improving evidence-based recommendations for empirical treatment of UTIs. Our aim was to determine the major bacterial etiologies of CAUTIs and their antibiotic resistance patterns in a cosmopolitan area of Cameroon for comparison with prescription practices of local physicians. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional descriptive study at two main hospitals in Yaoundé, collecting a clean-catch mid-stream urine sample from 92 patients having a clinical diagnosis of UTI. The empirical antibiotherapy was noted, and identification of bacterial species was done on CLED agar; antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Results. A total of 55 patients had samples positive for a UTI. Ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid were the most empirically prescribed antibiotics (30.9% and 23.6%, resp.); bacterial isolates showed high prevalence of resistance to both compounds. Escherichia coli (50.9%) was the most common pathogen, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (16.4%). Prevalence of resistance for ciprofloxacin was higher compared to newer quinolones. Conclusions. E. coli and K. pneumoniae were the predominant bacterial etiologies; the prevalence of resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics was high. Rolf Nyah-tuku Nzalie, Hortense Kamga Gonsu, and Sinata Koulla-Shiro Copyright © 2016 Rolf Nyah-tuku Nzalie et al. All rights reserved. Phosphate Solubilization Potential of Rhizosphere Fungi Isolated from Plants in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia Mon, 05 Sep 2016 11:43:45 +0000 Phosphorus (P) is one of the major bioelements limiting agricultural production. Phosphate solubilizing fungi play a noteworthy role in increasing the bioavailability of soil phosphates for plants. The present study was aimed at isolating and characterizing phosphate solubilizing fungi from different rhizospheres using both solid and liquid Pikovskaya (PVK) medium. A total of 359 fungal isolates were obtained from 150 rhizosphere soil samples of haricot bean, faba bean, cabbage, tomato, and sugarcane. Among the isolates, 167 (46.52%) solubilized inorganic phosphate. The isolated phosphate solubilizing fungi belonged to genera of Aspergillus (55.69%), Penicillium spp. (23.35%), and Fusarium (9.58%). Solubilization index (SI) ranged from 1.10 to 3.05. Isolates designated as JUHbF95 (Aspergillus sp.) and JUFbF59 (Penicillium sp.) solubilized maximum amount of P 728.77 μg·mL−1 and 514.44 μg mL−1, respectively, from TCP (tricalcium phosphate) after 15 days of incubation. The highest (363 μg mL−1) soluble-P was released from RP with the inoculation of JUHbF95 in the PVK broth after 10 days of incubation. The present study indicated the presence of diverse plant associated P-solubilizing fungi that may serve as potential biofertilizers. Firew Elias, Delelegn Woyessa, and Diriba Muleta Copyright © 2016 Firew Elias et al. All rights reserved. Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Effect of Low Viscosity Chitosan against Staphylococcus epidermidis Thu, 18 Aug 2016 16:34:25 +0000 Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial and antibiofilm properties of low viscosity chitosan on S. epidermidis growth and biofilm formation. Methods and Results. The antibacterial and antibiofilm properties were investigated, during both planktonic growth and biofilm formation. This was performed using different concentrations in media and by coating on polystyrene surfaces. In addition, the bactericidal effect was investigated using a modified direct contact test. The results showed that low viscosity chitosan in media had both a bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect on planktonic growth and biofilm formation of S. epidermidis in a concentration dependent manner. Polystyrene discs coated with chitosan reduced both early biofilm formation (6 h) and late biofilm formation (18 h), as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The modified direct contact test showed a bactericidal effect. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that low viscosity chitosan has a bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity against S. epidermidis and that the activity is dependent on the amount of chitosan added. In addition, low viscosity chitosan reduced biofilm formation both when added to media and when coated on polystyrene surfaces. Significance and Impact of Study. Low viscosity chitosan could be a contribution to new treatment approaches of biofilm-related infections of S. epidermidis. Inger Sofie Dragland, Håkon Valen Rukke, Ida S. R. Stenhagen, Jessica Lönn-Stensrud, and Hilde M. Kopperud Copyright © 2016 Inger Sofie Dragland et al. All rights reserved. Identification of Common Bacterial Pathogens Causing Meningitis in Culture-Negative Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples Using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Mon, 01 Aug 2016 13:51:27 +0000 Background. Meningitis is a serious communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates. It is an endemic disease in Egypt caused mainly by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae. In some settings, bacterial meningitis is documented depending mainly on positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture results or CSF positive latex agglutination test, missing the important role of prior antimicrobial intake which can yield negative culture and latex agglutination test results. This study aimed to utilize molecular technology in order to diagnose bacterial meningitis in culture-negative CSF samples. Materials and Methods. Forty culture-negative CSF samples from suspected cases of bacterial meningitis were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) for the presence of lytA, bexA, and ctrA genes specific for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis, respectively. Results. Positive real-time PCR results for Streptococcus pneumoniae were detected in 36 (90%) of culture-negative CSF samples while no positive results for Haemophilus influenzae or Neisseria meningitidis were detected. Four (10%) samples were negative by real-time PCR for all tested organisms. Conclusion. The use of molecular techniques as real-time PCR can provide a valuable addition to the proportion of diagnosed cases of bacterial meningitis especially in settings with high rates of culture-negative results. Walaa Shawky Khater and Safia Hamed Elabd Copyright © 2016 Walaa Shawky Khater and Safia Hamed Elabd. All rights reserved. Microbial Content of “Bowl Water” Used for Communal Handwashing in Preschools within Accra Metropolis, Ghana Sun, 31 Jul 2016 13:46:20 +0000 Objective. This study aimed at determining the microbial content of “bowl water” used for communal handwashing in preschools within the Accra Metropolis. Method. Six (6) preschools in the Accra Metropolis were involved in the study. Water samples and swabs from the hands of the preschool children were collected. The samples were analysed and tested for bacteria, fungi, parasites, and rotavirus. Results. Eight different bacteria, two different parasites, and a fungus were isolated while no rotavirus was detected. Unlike the rest of the microbes, bacterial isolates were found among samples from all the schools, with Staphylococcus species being the most prevalent (40.9%). Out of the three schools that had parasites in their water, two of them had Cryptosporidium parvum. The fungus isolated from two out of the six schools was Aspergillus niger. All bacteria isolated were found to be resistant to cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin and susceptible to amikacin and levofloxacin. Conclusion. Although handwashing has the ability to get rid of microbes, communal handwashing practices using water in bowls could be considered a possible transmission route and may be of public concern. Patience B. Tetteh-Quarcoo, Isaac Anim-Baidoo, Simon Kwaku Attah, Bawa Abdul-Latif Baako, Japheth A. Opintan, Andrew A. Minamor, Mubarak Abdul-Rahman, and Patrick F. Ayeh-Kumi Copyright © 2016 Patience B. Tetteh-Quarcoo et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Vinasse Application in the Structure and Composition of the Bacterial Community of the Soil under Sugarcane Cultivation Tue, 26 Jul 2016 14:11:10 +0000 Although the use of vinasse as a waste helps replenish soil nutrients and improves the quality of the sugarcane crop, it is known that vinasse residues alter the diversity of bacteria naturally present in the soil. The actual impacts of vinasse application on the selection of bacterial taxa are not understood because no studies have addressed this phenomenon directly. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone sequences from four soil types showed that the soil planted with sugarcane and fertilized with vinasse has a high diversity of bacteria compared to other biomes, where Acidobacteria were the second most abundant phylum. Although the composition and structure of bacterial communities differ significantly in the four environments (Libshuff’s test), forest soils and soil planted with sugarcane without vinasse fertilizer were similar to each other because they share at least 28 OTUs related to Rhizobiales, which are important agents involved in nitrogen fixation. OTUs belonging to Actinomycetales were detected more often in the soil that had vinasse applied, indicating that these groups are more favored by this type of land management. Wellington Pine Omori, André Ferreira de Camargo, Karla Cristina Stropa Goulart, Eliana Gertrudes de Macedo Lemos, and Jackson Antônio Marcondes de Souza Copyright © 2016 Wellington Pine Omori et al. All rights reserved. Physicochemical and Antibacterial Properties of Chitosan Extracted from Waste Shrimp Shells Wed, 13 Jul 2016 06:00:23 +0000 This research aims to study the production of chitosan from shrimp shell (Litopenaeus vannamei) of waste origin using two chemical methodologies involving demineralization, deproteinization, and the degree of deacetylation. The evaluation of the quality of chitosan from waste shrimp shells includes parameters for the yield, physical chemistry characteristics by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), the degree of deacetylation, and antibacterial activity. The results showed (by Method 1) extraction yields for chitin of 33% and for chitosan of 49% and a 76% degree of deacetylation. Chitosan obtained by Method 2 was more efficient: chitin (36%) and chitosan (63%), with a high degree of deacetylation (81.7%). The antibacterial activity was tested against Gram-negative bacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Enterobacter cloacae) and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) and the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were determined. Method 2 showed that extracted chitosan has good antimicrobial potential against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and that the process is viable. José Carlos Vilar Junior, Daylin Rubio Ribeaux, Carlos Alberto Alves da Silva, and Galba Maria De Campos-Takaki Copyright © 2016 José Carlos Vilar Junior et al. All rights reserved. Pattern of Bacterial Pathogens and Their Susceptibility Isolated from Surgical Site Infections at Selected Referral Hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Thu, 30 Jun 2016 13:55:29 +0000 Background. The emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens in hospitals is becoming a challenge for surgeons to treat hospital acquired infections. Objective. To determine bacterial pathogens and drug susceptibility isolated from surgical site infections at St. Paul Specialized Hospital Millennium Medical College and Yekatit 12 Referral Hospital Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2013 and March 2014 on 107 surgical site infected patients. Wound specimens were collected using sterile cotton swab and processed as per standard operative procedures in appropriate culture media; and susceptibility testing was done using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. The data were analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Result. From a total of 107 swabs collected, 90 (84.1%) were culture positive and 104 organisms were isolated. E. coli (24 (23.1%)) was the most common organism isolated followed by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter species (23 (22.1%)). More than 58 (75%) of the Gram negative isolates showed multiple antibiotic resistance (resistance ≥ 5 drugs). Pan-antibiotic resistance was noted among 8 (34.8%) Acinetobacter species and 3 (12.5%) E. coli. This calls for abstinence from antibiotic abuse. Conclusion. Gram negative bacteria were the most important isolates accounting for 76 (73.1%). Ampicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin, cephazoline, and tetracycline showed resistance while gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were relatively effective antimicrobials. Walelign Dessie, Gebru Mulugeta, Surafael Fentaw, Amete Mihret, Mulu Hassen, and Engida Abebe Copyright © 2016 Walelign Dessie et al. All rights reserved. Group B Streptococcus Colonization among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at Tertiary Hospital in Rural Southwestern Uganda Sun, 22 May 2016 13:43:12 +0000 Objectives. This study sought to determine the prevalence and factors associated with group B streptococcal anogenital colonization among pregnant women attending antenatal care at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, a tertiary hospital. Methods. Cross-sectional study where 309 pregnant women ≥ thirty-five weeks of gestation attending antenatal clinic were consecutively recruited between January and March 2015. Anovaginal swabs were collected and tested qualitatively using rapid visual immunoassay GBS test kits for presence of GBS antigens. Data was analyzed using STATA version 12. In univariate analysis, GBS colonized mothers were presented as percentages and numbers, and in multivariate analysis logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the associations of exposure variable and GBS colonization; a value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results. Mothers’ median age was 25 years, 14.6% mothers being obese. GBS prevalence was 28.8%, 95% CI: 23.7–33.9. Obesity was the only significant factor associated with anogenital GBS colonization with odds ratio of 3.78, 95% CI: 1.78–8.35, a value of 0.001. Maternal ages, educational level, residence, and gravidity were not associated with GBS anogenital colonization. Conclusion. Group B streptococcal anogenital colonization among pregnant women attending antenatal care at tertiary hospital, in Southwestern Uganda, is high. Abdul Namugongo, Joel Bazira, Yarine Fajardot, and Ngonzi Joseph Copyright © 2016 Abdul Namugongo et al. All rights reserved.