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International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences
Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 321-325

Ultralogics and probability models

Mathematics Department, U. S. Naval Academy, 572C Holloway RD, Annapolis, MD 21402-5002, USA

Received 9 December 2000

Copyright © 2001 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We show how nonstandard consequence operators, ultralogics, can generate the general informational content displayed by probability models. In particular, a probability model that predicts that a specific single event will occur and those models that predict that a specific distribution of events will occur.