Table of Contents
International Journal of Microwave Science and Technology
Volume 2016, Article ID 3195716, 6 pages
Research Article

Detection of Cracks in Concrete Structure Using Microwave Imaging Technique

1Department of Electrical Engineering, Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru, PMB 001, Wushishi, Niger State, Nigeria
2School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Penang, Malaysia

Received 6 March 2016; Accepted 11 May 2016

Academic Editor: Giancarlo Bartolucci

Copyright © 2016 E. A. Jiya et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Cracks in concrete or cement based materials present a great threat to any civil structures; they are very dangerous and have caused a lot of destruction and damage. Even small cracks that look insignificant can grow and may eventually lead to severe structural failure. Besides manual inspection that is ineffective and time-consuming, several nondestructive evaluation techniques have been used for crack detection such as ultrasonic technique, vibration technique, and strain-based technique; however, some of the sensors used are either too large in size or limited in resolution. A high resolution microwave imaging technique with ultrawideband signal for crack detection in concrete structures is proposed. A combination of the delay-and-sum beamformer with full-view mounted antennas constitutes the image reconstruction algorithm. Various anomaly scenarios in cement bricks were simulated using FDTD, constructed, and measured in the lab. The reconstructed images showed a high similarity between the simulation and the experiment with a resolution of which enables a detection of cracks as small as 5 mm in size.