Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Nephrology
Volume 2011, Article ID 245823, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/245823
Review Article

Management of the Kidney Transplant Patient with Chronic Hepatitis C Infection

1Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
2Section of Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
3Division of Transplant Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA

Received 2 December 2010; Accepted 25 January 2011

Academic Editor: James E. Springate

Copyright © 2011 Ignatius Y. S. Tang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. Martin and F. Fabrizi, “hepatitis C virus and kidney disease,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 613–624, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. R. Scott, J. K. W. Wong, and T. S. Spicer, “Adverse impact of hepatitis C virus infectin on renal replacement therapy and renal transplant patients in Australia and New Zealand,” Tranplantation, vol. 90, no. 11, pp. 1165–1171, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  3. N. A. Terrault and D. B. Adey, “The kidney transplant recipient with hepatitis C infection: pre- and posttransplantation treatment,” Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 563–575, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. M. Alavian, “A shield against a monster: hepatitis C in hemodialysis patients,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 641–646, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. L. Finelli, J. T. Miller, J. I. Tokars, M. J. Alter, and M. J. Arduino, “National surveillance of dialysis-associated diseases in the United States, 2002,” Seminars in Dialysis, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 52–61, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. E. J. Okoh, J. R. Bucci, J. F. Simon, and S. A. Harrison, “HCV in patients with end-stage renal disease,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 103, no. 8, pp. 2123–2134, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. Serón, M. Arias, J. M. Campistol, and J. M. Morales, “Late renal allograft failure between 1990 and 1998 in Spain: a changing scenario,” Transplantation, vol. 76, no. 11, pp. 1588–1594, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. M. Morales, B. Domínguez-Gil, D. Sanz-Guajardo, J. Fernández, and F. Escuin, “The influence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infection in the recipient on late renal allograft failure,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 19, supplement 3, pp. iii72–iii76, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. M. Cruzado, M. Carrera, J. Torras, and J. M. Grinyó, “hepatitis C virus infection and de novo glomerular lesions in renal allografts,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 171–178, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. F. Fabrizi, P. Martin, V. Dixit, S. Bunnapradist, and G. Dulai, “hepatitis C virus antibody status and survival after renal transplantation: meta-analysis of observational studies,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 1452–1461, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. J. A. Fishman, R. H. Rubin, M. J. Koziel, and B. J. G. Periera, “hepatitis C virus and organ transplantation,” Transplantation, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 147–154, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. R. Weir, R. L. Kirkman, T. B. Strom, and N. L. Tilney, “Liver disease in recipients of long-functioning renal allografts,” Kidney International, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 839–844, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. Y. Kokado, S. Takahara, N. Ichimaru et al., “Clinical outcome of HCV infection after renal transplantation,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1940–1943, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. I. M. Mahmoud, A. F. Elhabashi, E. Elsawy, A. A. El-Husseini, G. E. Sheha, and M. A. Sobh, “The impact of hepatitis C virus viremia on renal graft and patient survival: a 9-year prospective study,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 131–139, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. H. Hinrichsen, G. Leimenstoll, G. Stegen, H. Schrader, U. R. Fölsch, and W. E. Schmidt, “Prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis C virus infection in haemodialysis patients: a multicentre study in 2796 patients,” Gut, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 429–433, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. F. Nicot, N. Kamar, B. Mariamé, L. Rostaing, C. Pasquier, and J. Izopet, “No evidence of occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in serum of HCV antibody-positive HCV RNA-negative kidney-transplant patients,” Transplant International, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 594–601, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. Martin, D. Carter, F. Fabrizi et al., “Histopathological features of hepatitis C in renal transplant candidates,” Transplantation, vol. 69, no. 7, pp. 1479–1484, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. Tomé, J. Pascual, J. D. Pirsch, A. Musat, and M. R. Lucey, “hepatitis C infection in kidney transplantation,” Transplantation Reviews, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 86–96, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. “KDIGO clinical practice guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of hepatitis C in chronic kidney disease,” Kidney International. Supplement, vol. 109, pp. S1–S99, 2009.
  20. P. Mathurin, C. Mouquet, T. Poynard et al., “Impact of hepatitis B and C virus on kidney transplantation outcome,” Hepatology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 257–263, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. J. Cotler, G. Diaz, S. Gundlapalli et al., “Characteristics of hepatitis C in renal transplant candidates,” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 191–195, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Pawa, M. Ehrinpreis, M. Mutchnick, J. Janisse, R. Dhar, and F. A. Siddiqui, “Percutaneous liver biopsy is safe in chronic hepatitis C patients with end-stage renal disease,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 1316–1320, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. L. Weigert and A. I. Schafer, “Uremic bleeding: pathogenesis and therapy,” American Journal of the Medical Sciences, vol. 316, no. 2, pp. 94–104, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Šabovič, B. Salobir, I. P. Zupan, P. Bratina, V. Bojec, and J. B. Ponikvar, “The influence of the haemodialysis procedure on platelets, coagulation and fibrinolysis,” Pathophysiology of Haemostasis and Thrombosis, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 274–278, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Ahmad, F. Hasan, S. Abdeen et al., “Transjugular liver biopsy in patients with end-stage renal disease,” Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 257–260, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. Varaut, H. Fontaine, J. Serpaggi et al., “Diagnostic accuracy of the fibrotest in hemodialysis and renal transplant patients with chronic hepatitis C virus,” Transplantation, vol. 80, no. 11, pp. 1550–1555, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Canbakan, H. Senturk, B. Canbakan et al., “Validation of biochemical markers for the prediction of liver fibrosis and necroinflammatory activity in hemodialysis patients with chronic hepatitis C,” Nephron—Clinical Practice, vol. 117, no. 3, pp. c289–c295, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. V. S. Kamanna, M. L. Kashyap, R. Pai et al., “Uremic serum subfraction inhibits apolipoprotein A-I production by a human hepatoma cell line,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 193–200, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. T. Poynard, F. Imbert-Bismut, V. Ratziu et al., “Biochemical markers of liver fibrosis in patients infected by hepatitis C virus: longitudinal validation in a randomized trial,” Journal of Viral Hepatitis, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 128–133, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. L. L. Schiavon, J. L. N. Schiavon, R. J. Carvalho Filho et al., “Simple blood tests as noninvasive markers of liver fibrosis in hemodialysis patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection,” Hepatology, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 307–314, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. C. H. Liu, C. C. Liang, C. J. Liu et al., “The ratio of aminotransferase to platelets is a useful index for predicting hepatic fibrosis in hemodialysis patients with chronic hepatitis C,” Kidney International, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 103–109, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. F. Fabrizi, G. Dulai, V. Dixit, S. Bunnapradist, and P. Martin, “Meta-analysis: interferon for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in dialysis patients,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 18, no. 11-12, pp. 1071–1081, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. F. Fabrizi, F. F. Poordad, and P. Martin, “hepatitis C infection and the patient with end-stage renal disease,” Hepatology, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 3–10, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. W. Russo, R. Ghalib, S. Sigal, and V. Joshi, “Randomized trial of pegylated interferon α-2b monotherapy in haemodialysis patients with chronic hepatitis C,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 437–443, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. M. Cruzado, T. Casanovas-Taltavull, J. Torras, C. Baliellas, S. Gil-Vernet, and J. M. Grinyó, “Pretransplant interferon prevents hepatitis C virus-associated glomerulonephritis in renal allografts by HCV-RNA clearance,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 357–360, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. F. Fabrizi, P. Martin, V. Dixit, S. Bunnapradist, F. Kanwal, and G. Dulai, “Post-transplant diabetes mellitus and HCV seropositive status after renal transplantation: meta-analysis of clinical studies,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 2433–2440, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. T. Casanovas-Taltavull, C. Baliellas, C. Benasco et al., “Efficacy of interferon for chronic hepatitis C virus-related hepatitis in kidney transplant candidates on hemodialysis: results after transplantation,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 96, no. 4, pp. 1170–1177, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. N. Kamar, O. Toupance, M. Buchler et al., “Evidence that clearance of hepatitis C virus RNA after alpha-interferon therapy in dialysis patients is sustained after renal transplantation,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 14, pp. 2092–2098, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  39. N. Perico, D. Cattaneo, B. Bikbov, and G. Remuzzi, “hepatitis C infection and chronic renal diseases,” Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 207–220, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. H. Weclawiak, N. Kamar, A. Ould-Mohamed et al., “Treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in dialysis patients: an update,” Hepatitis Research and Treatment, vol. 2010, Article ID 267412, 6 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. C. E. Gordon, K. Uhlig, J. Lau, C. H. Schmid, A. S. Levey, and J. B. Wong, “Interferon treatment in hemodialysis patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection: a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of treatment efficacy and harms,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 263–277, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. G. Mchutchison, S. C. Gordon, E. R. Schiff et al., “Interferon alfa-2b alone or in combination with ribavirin as initial treatment for chronic hepatitis C,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 339, no. 21, pp. 1485–1492, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. T. Poynard, P. Marcellin, S. S. Lee et al., “Randomised trial of interferon α2b plus ribavirin for 48 weeks or for 24 weeks versus interferon α2b plus placebo for 48 weeks for treatment of chronic infection with hepatitis C virus,” The Lancet, vol. 352, no. 9138, pp. 1426–1432, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. O. F. Kokoglu, H. Uçmak, S. Hosoglu et al., “Efficacy and tolerability of pegylated-interferon alpha-2a in hemodialysis patients with chronic hepatitis C,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 575–580, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. T. Werner, B. Aqel, V. Balan et al., “Treatment of hepatitis C in renal transplantation candidates: a single-center experience,” Transplantation, vol. 90, pp. 407–411, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. C. H. Liu, C. C. Liang, J. W. Lin et al., “Pegylated interferon α-2a versus standard interferon α-2a for treatment-naïve dialysis patients with chronic hepatitis C: a randomised study,” Gut, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 525–530, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. S. M. Alavian and S. V. Tabatabaei, “Meta-analysis of factors associated with sustained viral response in patients on hemodialysis treated with standard or pegylated interferon for hepatitis C infection,” Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 181–194, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  48. F. Fabrizi, V. Dixit, P. Martin, and P. Messa, “Combined antiviral therapy of hepatitis C virus in dialysis patients: meta-analysis of clinical trials,” The Journal of Viral Hepatitis. In press. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. S. N. Natov, J. Y. Lau, R. Ruthazer et al., “hepatitis C virus genotype does not affect patient survival among renal transplant candidates. The New England Organ Bank hepatitis C Study Group,” Kidney International, vol. 56, pp. 700–706, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  50. T. Casanovas Taltavull, C. Baliellas Comellas, and J. M. Cruzado Garrit, “Results of hepatitis C virus treatment in patients on hemodialysis: data from published meta-analyses in 2008,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 2082–2084, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. C. Akhan, B. Kalender, and M. Ruzgar, “The response to pegylated interferon alpha 2a in haemodialysis patients with hepatitis C virus infection,” Infection, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 341–344, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. D. N. Amarapurkar, N. D. Patel, and A. L. Kirpalani, “Monotherapy with peginterferon alpha-2b {12 kDa} for chronic hepatitis C infection in patients undergoing haemodialysis,” Tropical gastroenterology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 16–18, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. H. W. Reesink, S. Zeuzem, C. J. Weegink et al., “Rapid decline of viral RNA in hepatitis C patients treated with VX-950: a phase Ib, placebo-controlled, randomized study,” Gastroenterology, vol. 131, no. 4, pp. 997–1002, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. J. McHutchison and M. Sulkowski, “Scientific rationale and study design of the individualized dosing efficacy vs flat dosing to assess optimal pegylated interferon therapy (IDEAL) trial: determining optimal dosing in patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C,” Journal of Viral Hepatitis, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 475–481, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. C. Hézode, N. Forestier, G. Dusheiko et al., “Telaprevir and peginterferon with or without ribavirin for chronic HCV infection,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 360, no. 18, pp. 1839–1850, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. S. K. Gupta, S. L. Rosenkranz, Y. S. Cramer et al., “The pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenomics of efavirenz and lopinavir/ritonavir in HIV-infected persons requiring hemodialysis,” AIDS, vol. 22, no. 15, pp. 1919–1927, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. H. Izzedine, V. Launay-Vacher, M. Legrand, D. Lieberherr, E. Caumes, and G. Deray, “ABT 378/r: a novel inhibitor of HIV-1 protease in haemodialysis,” AIDS, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 662–664, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. B. Domínguez-Gil, N. Esforzado, J. M. Campistol, A. Andres, and J. M. Morales, “Use of hepatitis C-positive donors for kidney transplantation,” Transplantation Reviews, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 195–203, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. L. M. Kucirka, A. L. Singer, R. L. Ros, R. A. Montgomery, N. N. Dagher, and D. L. Segev, “Underutilization of hepatitis C-positive kidneys for hepatitis C-positive recipients,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 1238–1246, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J. M. Morales, J. M. Campistol, B. Domínguez-Gil et al., “Long-term experience with kidney transplantation from hepatitis C-positive donors into hepatitis C-positive recipients,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 2453–2462, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  61. T. Schussler, C. Staffeld-Coit, J. Eason, and S. Nair, “Severe hepatitis C infection in a renal transplant recipient following hepatitis C genotype mismatch transplant,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 1375–1378, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. S. Ciesek, E. Steinmann, M. Iken et al., “Glucocorticosteroids increase cell entry by hepatitis C virus,” Gastroenterology, vol. 138, no. 5, pp. 1875–1884, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. J. Ortiz, J. Horton, A. Bingaman et al., “Campath 1-H induction and steroid-free maintenance immunosuppression n hepatitis C positive kidney recipients,” Transplantation, vol. 86, no. 2S, p. 712, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  64. E. Akalin, B. Murphy, V. Sehgal, S. Ames, L. Daly, and J. S. Bromberg, “Rapid steroid withdrawal in hepatitis C virus-positive kidney transplant recipients,” Clinical Transplantation, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 384–389, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. P. A. Gallay, “Cyclophilin inhibitors,” Clinics in Liver Disease, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 403–417, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. F. U. L. Luan, D. E. Schaubel, H. Zhang et al., “Impact of immunosuppressive regimen on survival of kidney transplant recipients with hepatitis C,” Transplantation, vol. 85, no. 11, pp. 1601–1606, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. N. Kamar, K. Sandres-Sauné, and L. Rostaing, “Influence of rituximab therapy on hepatitis C virus RNA concentration in kidney-transplant patients,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 7, no. 10, p. 2440, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. L. Alric, V. DiMartino, J. Selves et al., “Long-term impact of renal transplantation on liver fibrosis during hepatitis C virus infection,” Gastroenterology, vol. 123, no. 5, pp. 1494–1499, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. N. Kamar, L. Rostaing, J. Selves et al., “Natural history of hepatitis C virus-related liver fibrosis after renal transplantation,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 1704–1712, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. L. Castera, X. Forns, and A. Alberti, “Non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis using transient elastography,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 835–847, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. B. Coco, F. Oliveri, A. M. Maina et al., “Transient elastography: a new surrogate marker of liver fibrosis influenced by major changes of transaminases,” Journal of Viral Hepatitis, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 360–369, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. R. Muñoz, E. Ramírez, I. Fernandez et al., “Correlation between fibroscan, liver biopsy, and clinical liver function in patients with hepatitis C virus infection after renal transplantation,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 2425–2426, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  73. D. Hestin, F. Guillemin, N. Castin, A. Le Faou, J. Champigneulles, and M. Kessler, “Pretransplant hepatitis C virus infection: a predictor of proteinuria after renal transplantation,” Transplantation, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 741–744, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. J. M. Cruzado, S. Gil-Vernet, G. Ercilla et al., “hepatitis C virus-associated membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in renal allografts,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 2469–2475, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. J. M. Morales, “hepatitis C virus infection and renal disease after renal transplantation,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 760–762, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. D. Roth, R. Cirocco, K. Zucker et al., “De novo membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in hepatitis C virus- infected renal allograft recipients,” Transplantation, vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 1676–1682, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. J. M. Morales, J. M. Campistol, A. Andrés, and J. L. Rodicio, “Glomerular diseases in patients with hepatitis C virus infection after renal transplantation,” Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 511–515, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. C. M. Meyers, L. B. Seeff, C. O. Stehman-Breen, and J. H. Hoofnagle, “hepatitis C and renal disease: an update,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 631–657, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. N. Kamar, L. Rostaing, A. Boulestin et al., “Evolution of hepatitis C virus quasispecies in renal transplant patients with de novo glomerulonephritis,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 482–488, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. S. Baid, M. Pascual, W. W. Williams et al., “Renal thrombotic microangiopathy associated with anticardiolipin antibodies in hepatitis C-positive renal allograft recipients,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 146–153, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. F. G. Cosio, D. D. Sedmak, M. L. Henry et al., “The high prevalence of severe early posttransplant renal allograft pathology inhepatitis C positive recipients,” Transplantation, vol. 62, no. 8, pp. 1054–1059, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. S. Baid, N. Tolkoff-Rubin, S. Saidman et al., “Acute humoral rejection in hepatitis C-infected renal transplant recipients receiving antiviral therapy,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 74–78, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. N. Kamar, K. Sandres-Saune, J. Selves et al., “Long-term ribavirin therapy in hepatitis C virus-positive renal transplant patients: effects on renal function and liver histology,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 184–192, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. A. A. Shahin, S. M. El Desouky, and H. S. Zayed, “A retrospective analysis of treatment outcomes in patients with hepatitis C related systemic vasculitis receiving intravenous methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide,” Clinical Rheumatology. In press. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  85. T. Namba, R. Shiba, T. Yamamoto et al., “Successful treatment of HCV-related cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis with double-filtration plasmapheresis and interferon combination therapy,” Clinical and Experimental Nephrology, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 372–376, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. F. Zaja, S. De Vita, C. Mazzaro et al., “Efficacy and safety of rituximab in type II mixed cryoglobulinemia,” Blood, vol. 101, no. 10, pp. 3827–3834, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. D. Roccatello, S. Baldovino, D. Rossi et al., “Long-term effects of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody treatment of cryoglobulinaemic glomerulonephritis,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 3054–3061, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. G. Basse, D. Ribes, N. Kamar et al., “Rituximab therapy for mixed cryoglobulinemia in seven renal transplant patients,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 2308–2310, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. M. Iyoda, K. L. Hudkins, S. Becker-Herman et al., “Imatinib suppresses cryoglobulinemia and secondary membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 68–77, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. R. D. Bloom and J. R. Lake, “Emerging issues in hepatitis C virus-positive liver and kidney transplant recipients,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 2232–2237, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. R. D. Bloom, V. Rao, F. Weng, R. A. Grossman, D. Cohen, and K. C. Mange, “Association of hepatitis C with posttransplant diabetes in renal transplant patients on tacrolimus,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 1374–1380, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. B. L. Kasiske, J. J. Snyder, D. Gilbertson, and A. J. Matas, “Diabetes mellitus after kidney transplantation in the United States,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 178–185, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. S. Baid-Agrawal, U. Frei, P. Reinke et al., “Impaired insulin sensitivity as an underlying mechanism linking hepatitis C and posttransplant diabetes mellitus in kidney recipients,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 2777–2784, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. O. Heisel, R. Heisel, R. Balshaw, and P. Keown, “New onset diabetes mellitus in patients receiving calcineurin inhibitors: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 583–595, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus