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International Journal of Nephrology
Volume 2011, Article ID 490795, 12 pages
Review Article

ADPKD: Prototype of Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 4

1Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, St. Bortolo Hospital, Via Rodolfi 37, 36100 Vicenza, Italy
2IRRIV- International Renal Resarch Institute Vicenza, Vicenza, Italy
3Division of Nephrology, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Padova, 35128 Padova, Italy
4Clinical Genetics unit, Department of Pediatrics, University of Padova, 35128 Padova, Italy

Received 23 August 2010; Accepted 26 October 2010

Academic Editor: Mitchell H. Rosner

Copyright © 2011 Grazia Maria Virzì et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The cardiorenal syndrome type 4 (Chronic Renocardiac Syndrome) is characterized by a condition of primary chronic kidney disease (CKD) that leads to an impairment of the cardiac function, ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, and/or increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Clinically, it is very difficult to distinguish between CRS type 2 (Chronic Cardiorenal Syndrome) and CRS type 4 (Chronic Renocardiac Syndrome) because often it is not clear whether the primary cause of the syndrome depends on the heart or the kidney. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), a genetic disease that causes CKD, could be viewed as an ideal prototype of CRS type 4 because it is certain that the primary cause of cardiorenal syndrome is the kidney disease. In this paper, we will briefly review the epidemiology of ADPKD, conventional and novel biomarkers which may be useful in following the disease process, and prevention and treatment strategies.