International Journal of Nephrology / 2011 / Article / Tab 1

Clinical Study

Metformin-Associated Acute Kidney Injury and Lactic Acidosis

Table 1

Clinical and analytical characteristics of the patients.

Patients classified according to renal function
All patients
n = 29
eGFR > 60 mL/min*
n = 12
eGFR < 60 mL/min*
n = 17

Age
Gender (M/F) (%)
72 ± 8.78
44.8/55.2
70.33 ± 5.74
50/50
73.18 ± 10.42
41.2/58.8
0.40
0.64

Coexisting conditions (%):
  (i) Hypertension100100100
  (ii) Chronic heart disease3825530.13
  (iii) Cerebrovascular disease3125350.56
  (iv) Cancer2433180.33
 (v) Liver disease108120.77
  (vi) Peripheral vasculopathy100180.12
  (vii) Chronic respiratory disease3800.23

Other treatments (%):
Antihypertensive drugs: ‡
 (i) RAAS blockers8691.782.40.47
  (a) of which ACE inhibitors59
  (b) of which ARB24
  (c) of which dual block3
 (ii) Diuretics555058.80.64
Other antidiabetic agents:
 (i) Other oral antidiabetic drugs4133.347.10.46
  (ii) Insulin2133.317.60.33

Laboratory values at diagnosis:
 (i) Creatinine (μmol/L)599.35 ± 299.68675.38 ± 302.33544.55 ± 295.260.25
  (ii) eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)10.47 ± 7.948.73 ± 6.9811.69 ± 8.550.33
  (iii) Urea (mmol/L)58.01 ± 20.7558.52 ± 24.7357.65 ± 18.230.91
  (iv) pH7.12 ± 0.197.12 ± 0.187.12 ± 0.200.96
  (v) Lactate (mmol/L)9.05 ± 4.998.92 ± 5.029.07 ± 5.160.94
  (vi) Bicarbonate (mmol/L)11.14 ± 7.2310.84 ± 7.5111.35 ± 7.250.86
  (vii) Anion gap29.03 ± 10.2328.58 ± 12.5128.94 ± 9.620.93
  (viii) Sodium (mmol/L)134.17 ± 7.09135.42 ± 5.25133.29 ± 8.200.44
  (ix) Chloride (mmol/L)94.24 ± 8.6496 ± 7.8293 ± 9.200.37
  (x) Potassium (mmol/L)5.65 ± 1.366.01 ± 1.095.40 ± 1.500.24
  (xi) Phosphate (mmol/L)2.48 ± 1.402.63 ± 1.892.37 ± 0.920.63
  (xii) Hemoglobin (g/L)117.7 ± 22.4111.4 ± 17.1122.1 ± 25.00.21
  (xiii) Total serum proteins (g/L)66.9 ± 12.468.3 ± 10.966.0 ± 13.50.64
  (xiv) Albumin (g/L)32.8 ± 5.132.9 ± 5.332.8 ± 5.20.96
Blood pressure at diagnosis (mm Hg):
 (i) Systolic119.31 ± 37.31121.33 ± 42.84117.88 ± 34.200.81
 (ii) Diastolic63.00 ± 19.5062.09 ± 21.1763.59 ± 18.980.85
 (iii) Mean81.41 ± 24.4180.97 ± 28.4481.69 ± 22.360.94

Endpoints:
 (i) RRT requirement (%)3091.747.10.013
  (ii) Creatinine at discharge (μmol/L)138.79 ± 42.43123.76 ± 28.29150.28 ± 48.620.09
  (iii) eGFR at discharge (mL/min/1.73 m2)*42.72 ± 12.6046.50 ± 13.0339.95 ± 11.950.20
  (iv) Creatinine 3 months after discharge (μmol/L)106.96 ± 38.0199.01 ± 32.71111.38 ± 40.660.47
  (v) eGFR 3 months after discharge (mL/min/1.732)*63.82 ± 28.6065.59 ± 22.4362.73 ± 32.650.83

Mean ± standard deviation for quantitative variables; percentages for qualitative variables.*Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated according to the MDRD-4-IMDS equation.Significant values between groups highlighted in bold.RAAS: renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; ACE: angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB: aldosterone-receptor blockers.

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