Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Nephrology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 321714, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/321714
Review Article

Antioxidants in Kidney Diseases: The Impact of Bardoxolone Methyl

Laboratory of Renal and Vascular Pathology, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, IIS Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Autonoma University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain

Received 15 September 2011; Revised 2 April 2012; Accepted 10 April 2012

Academic Editor: Ali Anarat

Copyright © 2012 Jorge Rojas-Rivera et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Center for Disease Control and Prevention, “Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and associated risk factors: United States, 1999–2004,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 56, pp. 161–165, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  2. S. Wild, G. Roglic, A. Green, R. Sicree, and H. King, “Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1047–1053, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. Ruggenenti, P. Cravedi, and G. Remuzzi, “The RAAS in the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetic nephropathy,” Nature Reviews Nephrology, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 319–330, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. T. Morgan, “Renin, angiotensin, sodium and organ damage,” Hypertension Research, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 349–354, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. M. Ferrario, “Role of angiotensin II in cardiovascular disease—therapeutic implications of more than a century of research,” Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 3–14, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. E. Cooper, “The role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in diabetes and its vascular complications,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 16S–20S, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. U. C. Brewster and M. A. Perazella, “The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the kidney: effects on kidney disease,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 116, no. 4, pp. 263–272, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. H. M. Siragy and R. M. Carey, “Protective role of the angiotensin AT2 receptor in a renal wrap hypertension model,” Hypertension, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 1237–1242, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. A. Ondetti, B. Rubin, and D. W. Cushman, “Design of specific inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme: new class of orally active antihypertensive agents,” Science, vol. 196, no. 4288, pp. 441–444, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. G. Remuzzi, “Randomised placebo-controlled trial of effect of ramipril on decline in glomerular filtration rate and risk of terminal renal failure in proteinuric, non-diabetic nephropathy,” The Lancet, vol. 349, no. 9069, pp. 1857–1863, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Y. Taguma, Y. Kitamoto, and G. Futaki, “Effect of captopril on heavy proteinuria in azotemic diabetics,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 313, no. 26, pp. 1617–1620, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. B. M. Brenner, M. E. Cooper, D. de Zeeuw et al., “Effects of losartan on renal and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 345, no. 12, pp. 861–869, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. E. J. Lewis, L. G. Hunsicker, W. R. Clarke et al., “Renoprotective effect of the angiotensin-receptor antagonist irbesartan in patients with nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 345, no. 12, pp. 851–860, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. P. Jacobsen, S. Andersen, K. Rossing, B. V. Hansen, and H. H. Parving, “Dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin system in type 1 patients with diabetic nephropathy,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1019–1024, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. E. Mogensen, S. Neldam, I. Tikkanen et al., “Randomised controlled trial of dual blockade of renin-angiotensin system in patients with hypertension, microalbuminuria, and non-insulin dependent diabetes: the candesartan and lisinopril microalbuminuria (CALM) study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 321, no. 7274, pp. 1440–1444, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. P. Jacobsen, S. Andersen, B. R. Jensen, and H. H. Parving, “Additive effect of ACE inhibition and angiotensin II receptor blockade in type I diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 992–999, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. Ruggenenti, L. Mosconi, F. Sangalli et al., “Glomerular size-selective dysfunction in NIDDM is not ameliorated by ACE inhibition or by calcium channel blockade,” Kidney International, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 984–994, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Z. Zhang, S. Shahinfar, W. F. Keane et al., “Importance of baseline distribution of proteinuria in renal outcomes trials: lessons from the reduction of endpoints in NIDDM with the angiotensin II antagonist losartan (RENAAL) study,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1775–1780, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. W. Huang, C. Xu, K. W. Kahng, N. A. Noble, W. A. Border, and Y. Huang, “Aldosterone and TGF-β1 synergistically increase PAI-1 and decrease matrix degradation in rat renal mesangial and fibroblast cells,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 294, no. 6, pp. F1287–F1295, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Nagase, S. Shibata, S. Yoshida, T. Nagase, T. Gotoda, and T. Fujita, “Podocyte injury underlies the glomerulopathy of Dahl salt-hypertensive rats and is reversed by aldosterone blocker,” Hypertension, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1084–1093, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Briet and E. L. Schiffrin, “Aldosterone: effects on the kidney and cardiovascular system,” Nature Reviews Nephrology, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 261–273, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. Struthers, H. Krum, and G. H. Williams, “A comparison of the aldosterone-blocking agents eplerenone and spironolactone,” Clinical Cardiology, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 153–158, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. Bianchi, R. Bigazzi, and V. M. Campese, “Long-term effects of spironolactone on proteinuria and kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease,” Kidney International, vol. 70, no. 12, pp. 2116–2123, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. U. F. Mehdi, B. Adams-Huet, P. Raskin, G. L. Vega, and R. D. Toto, “Addition of angiotensin receptor blockade or mineralocorticoid antagonism to maximal angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in diabetic nephropathy,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 2641–2650, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. D. Navaneethan, S. U. Nigwekar, A. R. Sehgal, and G. F. M. Strippoli, “Aldosterone antagonists for preventing the progression of chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 542–551, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Y. Huang, S. Wongamorntham, J. Kasting et al., “Renin increases mesangial cell transforming growth factor-β1 and matrix proteins through receptor-mediated, angiotensin II-independent mechanisms,” Kidney International, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 105–113, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Ichihara, F. Suzuki, T. Nakagawa et al., “Prorenin receptor blockade inhibits development of glomerulosclerosis in diabetic angiotensin II type 1a receptor-deficient mice,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1950–1961, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. F. Persson, P. Rossing, H. Reinhard et al., “Renal effects of aliskiren compared with and in combination with irbesartan in patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and albuminuria,” Diabetes Care, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 1873–1879, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. H. H. Parving, F. Persson, J. B. Lewis, E. J. Lewis, and N. K. Hollenberg, “Aliskiren combined with losartan in type 2 diabetes and nephropathy,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 358, no. 23, pp. 2433–2446, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. I. H. De Boer, W. Sun, P. A. Cleary et al., “Intensive diabetes therapy and glomerular filtration rate in type 1 diabetes,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 265, pp. 2366–2376, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  31. D. de Zeeuw, R. Agarwal, M. Amdahl et al., “Selective vitamin D receptor activation with paricalcitol for reduction of albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes (VITAL study): a randomised controlled trial,” The Lancet, vol. 376, no. 9752, pp. 1543–1551, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. K. Rutter, H. R. Prais, V. Charlton-Menys et al., “Protection against nephropathy in diabetes with atorvastatin (PANDA): a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of high- vs. low-dose atorvastatin (1),” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 100–108, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. K. Sharma, J. H. Ix, A. V. Mathew et al., “Pirfenidone for diabetic nephropathy,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1144–1151, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. D. E. Kohan, Y. Pritchett, M. Molitch et al., “Addition of atrasentan to renin-angiotensin system blockade reduces albuminuria in diabetic nephropathy,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 763–772, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. H. Trachtman, F. C. Fervenza, D. S. Gipson et al., “A phase 1, single-dose study of fresolimumab, an anti-TGF-β antibody, in treatment-resistant primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis,” Kidney International, vol. 79, no. 11, pp. 1236–1243, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. Waldman and H. A. Austin III, “Controversies in the treatment of idiopathic membranous nephropathy,” Nature Reviews Nephrology, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 469–479, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Ruiz-Ortega and A. Ortiz, “Angiotensin II and reactive oxygen species,” Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, vol. 7, no. 9-10, pp. 1258–1260, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. Lazaro, J. Gallego-Delgado, P. Justo et al., “Long-term blood pressure control prevents oxidative renal injury,” Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, vol. 7, no. 9-10, pp. 1285–1293, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. F. Neria, M. A. Castilla, R. F. Sanchez et al., “Inhibition of JAK2 protects renal endothelial and epithelial cells from oxidative stress and cyclosporin A toxicity,” Kidney International, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 227–234, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. V. Cachofeiro, M. Goicochea, S. G. de Vinuesa, P. Oubía, V. Lahera, and J. Lũo, “Oxidative stress and inflammation, a link between chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease,” Kidney International, vol. 74, supplement 111, pp. S4–S9, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. N. D. Vaziri and B. Rodriguez-Iturbe, “Mechanisms of disease: oxidative stress and inflammation in the pathogenesis of hypertension,” Nature Clinical Practice Nephrology, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 582–593, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. H. J. Kim, T. Sato, N. D. Vaziri, and B. Rodriguez-Iturbe, “Role of intrarenal angiotensin system activation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and impaired nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 activity in the progression of focal glomerulosclerosis,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 337, no. 3, pp. 583–590, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. E. N. Wardle, “Cellular oxidative processes in relation to renal disease,” American Journal of Nephrology, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 13–22, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. Pleskova, K. F. Beck, M. H. Behrens et al., “Nitric oxide down-regulates the expression of the catalytic NADPH oxidase subunit Nox1 in rat renal mesangial cells,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 139–141, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. B. A. Molitoris and J. Marrs, “The role of cell adhesion molecules in ischemic acute renal failure,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 106, no. 5, pp. 583–592, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. A. R. C. Daemen, C. Van't Veer, G. Denecker et al., “Inhibition of apoptosis induced by ischemia-reperfusion prevents inflammation,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 104, no. 5, pp. 541–549, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. M. Alonso de Vega, J. Diaz, E. Serrano, and L. F. Carbonell, “Oxidative stress in critically ill patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 1782–1786, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. Y. Taniyama and K. K. Griendling, “Reactive oxygen species in the vasculature: molecular and cellular mechanisms,” Hypertension, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 1075–1081, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. M. Ruiz-Ortega, J. Egido, O. Lorenzo, M. Rupérez, S. König, and B. Wittig, “Angiotensin II activates nuclear transcription factor κB through AT1 and AT2 in vascular smooth muscle cells molecular mechanisms,” Circulation Research, vol. 86, no. 12, pp. 1266–1272, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. S. Bittar and F. Al-Mulla, “A defect in Nrf2 signaling constitutes a mechanism for cellular stress hypersensitivity in type 2 diabetes,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 301, no. 6, pp. E1119–E1129, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  51. R. M. Mason and N. A. Wahab, “Extracellular matrix metabolism in diabetic nephropathy,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 1358–1373, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. H. B. Lee, M. R. Yu, Y. Yang, Z. Jiang, and H. Ha, “Reactive oxygen species-regulated signaling pathways in diabetic nephropathy,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 14, no. 8, supplement 3, pp. S241–S245, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. Brownlee, “Biochemistry and molecular cell biology of diabetic complications,” Nature, vol. 414, no. 6865, pp. 813–820, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. M. A. Lal, H. Brismar, A. C. Eklof, and A. Aperia, “Role of oxidative stress in advanced glycation end product-induced mesangial cell activation,” Kidney International, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 2006–2014, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. P. Justo, A. B. Sanz, J. Egido, and A. Ortiz, “3,4-Dideoxyglucosone-3-ene induces apoptosis in renal tubular epithelial cells,” Diabetes, vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 2424–2429, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. B. P. S. Kang, S. Frencher, V. Reddy, A. Kessler, A. Malhorta, and L. G. Meggs, “High glucose promotes mesangial cell apoptosis by oxidant-dependent mechanism,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 284, no. 3, pp. F455–F466, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. M. C. Iglesias-de La Cruz, P. Ruiz-Torres, J. AlcamI et al., “Hydrogen peroxide increases extracellular matrix mRNA through TGF-β in human mesangial cells,” Kidney International, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 87–95, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. M. P. Catalan, B. Santamaría, A. Reyero, A. Ortiz, J. Egido, and A. Ortiz, “3,4-Di-deoxyglucosone-3-ene promotes leukocyte apoptosis,” Kidney International, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 1303–1311, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. A. Ortiz, C. Lorz, P. Justo, M. P. Catalan, and J. Egido, “Contribution of apoptotic cell death to renal injury,” Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 18–32, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. T. Inoguchi, T. Sonta, H. Tsubouchi et al., “Protein kinase C-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in vascular tissues of diabetes: role of vascular NAD(P)H oxidase,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 14, no. 8, supplement 3, pp. S227–S232, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. F. N. Zyyadeh, “Mediators of diabetic renal disease: the case for TGF-β as a major mediator,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 15, supplement 1, pp. S55–S57, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  62. C. Weigert, U. Sauer, K. Brodbeck, A. Pfeiffer, H. U. Häring, and E. D. Schleicher, “AP-1 proteins mediate hyperglycemia-induced activation of the human TGF-β1 promoter in mesangial cells,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 2007–2016, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. T. Jiang, Z. Huang, Y. Lin, Z. Zhang, D. Fang, and D. D. Zhang, “The protective role of Nrf2 in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy,” Diabetes, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 850–860, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. J. M. Li and A. M. Shah, “ROS generation by nonphagocytic NADPH oxidase: potential relevance in diabetic nephropathy,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. S221–S226, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. A. B. Sanz, M. D. Sanchez-Niño, A. M. Ramos et al., “NF-κB in renal inflammation,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1254–1262, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. S. V. Shah, “Oxidants and iron in chronic kidney disease,” Kidney International, Supplement, vol. 66, no. 91, pp. S50–S55, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. M. N. Budisavljevic, L. Hodge, K. Barber et al., “Oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of experimental mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 285, no. 6, pp. F1138–F1148, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. S. Kantengwa, L. Jornot, C. Devenoges, and L. P. Nicod, “Superoxide anions induce the maturation of human dendritic cells,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 167, no. 3, pp. 431–437, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. Y. Suzuki, C. Gómez-Guerrero, I. Shirato et al., “Pre-existing glomerular immune complexes induce polymorphonuclear cell recruitment through an Fc receptor-dependent respiratory burst: potential role in the perpetuation of immune nephritis,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 170, no. 6, pp. 3243–3253, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. A. Ortiz, S. Gonzalez-Cuadrado, C. Bustos et al., “Tumor necrosis factor as a mediator of glomerular damage,” Journal of Nephrology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 27–34, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. B. Rodriguez-Iturbe, J. Herrera-Acosta, and R. J. Johnson, “Interstitial inflammation, sodium retention, and the pathogenesis of nephrotic edema: a unifying hypothesis,” Kidney International, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 1379–1384, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. B. Rodriguez-Iturbe, N. D. Vaziri, J. Herrera-Acosta, and R. J. Johnson, “Oxidative stress, renal infiltration of immune cells, and salt-sensitive hypertension: all for one and one for all,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 286, no. 4, pp. F606–F616, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. H. H. Hsu, S. Hoffmann, G. S. Di Marco et al., “Downregulation of the antioxidant protein peroxiredoxin 2 contributes to angiotensin II-mediated podocyte apoptosis,” Kidney International, vol. 80, pp. 959–969, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. T. J. Neale, P. P. Ojha, M. Exner et al., “Proteinuria in passive Heymann nephritis is associated with lipid peroxidation and formation of adducts on type IV collagen,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 1577–1584, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. W. G. Couser and M. Nangaku, “Cellular and molecular biology of membranous nephropathy,” Journal of Nephrology, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 699–705, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. M. Prunotto, M. L. Carnevali, G. Candiano et al., “Autoimmunity in membranous nephropathy targets aldose reductase and SOD2,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 507–519, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. M. H. Foster, “T cells and B cells in lupus nephritis,” Seminars in Nephrology, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 47–58, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. K. Yoh, K. Itoh, A. Enomoto et al., “Nrf2-deficient female mice develop lupus-like autoimmune nephritis,” Kidney International, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 1343–1353, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. R. J. Falk and J. C. Jennette, “ANCA are pathogenicoh—oh yes they are!,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 1977–1979, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. J. P. Gaut, J. Byun, H. D. Tran et al., “Myeloperoxidase produces nitrating oxidants in vivo,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 109, no. 10, pp. 1311–1319, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. L. Harper, Y. Ren, J. Savill, D. Adu, and C. O. S. Savage, “Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies induce reactive oxygen-dependent dysregulation of primed neutrophil apoptosis and clearance by macrophages,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 157, no. 1, pp. 211–220, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. M. Gómez-Chiarri, A. Ortiz, S. González-Cuadrado et al., “Interferon-inducible protein-10 is highly expressed in rats with experimental nephrosis,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 301–311, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. S. Tang, J. C. K. Leung, K. Abe et al., “Albumin stimulates interleukin-8 expression in proximal tubular epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 111, no. 4, pp. 515–527, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. M. Morigi, D. Macconi, C. Zoja et al., “Protein overload-induced NF-κB activation in proximal tubular cells requires H2O2 through a PKC-dependent pathway,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 1179–1189, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. R. Stocker and J. F. Keaney, “Role of oxidative modifications in atherosclerosis,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 1381–1478, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. J. Himmelfarb, P. Stenvinkel, T. A. Ikizler, and R. M. Hakim, “Perspectives in renal medicine: the elephant in uremia: oxidant stress as a unifying concept of cardiovascular disease in uremia,” Kidney International, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 1524–1538, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. S. Swaminathan and S. V. Shah, “Novel inflammatory mechanisms of accelerated atherosclerosis in kidney disease,” Kidney International, vol. 80, pp. 453–463, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. P. Champe and R. A. Harvey, Pentose Phosphate Pathway and NADPH in Biochemistry, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 4th edition, 2008.
  89. C. K. Sen, “Antioxidant and redox regulation of cellular signaling: Introduction,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 368–370, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. K. K. Griendling, D. Sorescu, and M. Ushio-Fukai, “NAD(P)H oxidase: role in cardiovascular biology and disease,” Circulation Research, vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 494–501, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. A. T. Dinkova-Kostova, K. T. Liby, K. K. Stephenson et al., “Extremely potent triterpenoid inducers of the phase 2 response: correlations of protection against oxidant and inflammatory stress,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 12, pp. 4584–4589, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. W. Li, T. O. Khor, C. Xu et al., “Activation of Nrf2-antioxidant signaling attenuates NFκB-inflammatory response and elicits apoptosis,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 76, no. 11, pp. 1485–1489, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. R. K. Thimmulappa, H. Lee, T. Rangasamy et al., “Nrf2 is a critical regulator of the innate immune response and survival during experimental sepsis,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 116, no. 4, pp. 984–995, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. F. Lacy, M. T. Kailasam, D. T. O'Connor, G. W. Schmid-Schönbein, and R. J. Parmer, “Plasma hydrogen peroxide production in human essential hypertension: role of heredity, gender, and ethnicity,” Hypertension, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 878–884, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. L. J. Dixon, S. M. Hughes, K. Rooney et al., “Increased superoxide production in hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus: role of nitric oxide synthase,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 839–843, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. A. M. Roggensack, Y. Zhang, and S. T. Davidge, “Evidence for peroxynitrite formation in the vasculature of women with preeclampsia,” Hypertension, vol. 33, no. 1 I, pp. 83–89, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. Y. Quiroz, A. Ferrebuz, N. D. Vaziri, and B. Rodriguez-Iturbe, “Effect of chronic antioxidant therapy with superoxide dismutase-mimetic drug, tempol, on progression of renal disease in rats with renal mass reduction,” Nephron, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. e31–e42, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. L. Zhang, S. Fujii, J. Igarashi, and H. Kosaka, “Effects of thiol antioxidant on reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase in hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 1813–1820, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. B. Shen, M. Hagiwara, Y. Y. Yao, L. Chao, and J. Chao, “Salutary effect of kallistatin in salt-induced renal injury, inflammation, and fibrosis via antioxidative stress,” Hypertension, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 1358–1365, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. C. D. Zhan, R. K. Sindhu, J. Pang, A. Ehdaie, and N. D. Vaziri, “Superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the spontaneously hypertensive rat kidney: effect of antioxidant-rich diet,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 2025–2033, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. R. Chaaya, C. Alfarano, C. Guilbeau-Frugier et al., “Pargyline reduces renal damage associated with ischaemia-reperfusion and cyclosporin,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 489–498, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. K. Shimoishi, M. Anraku, K. Kitamura et al., “An oral adsorbent, AST-120 protects against the progression of oxidative stress by reducing the accumulation of indoxyl sulfate in the systemic circulation in renal failure,” Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1283–1289, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. W. S. An, H. J. Kim, K. H. Cho, and N. D. Vaziri, “Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation attenuates oxidative stress, inflammation, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the remnant kidney,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 297, no. 4, pp. F895–F903, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. O. López-Franco, Y. Suzuki, G. Sanjuán et al., “Nuclear factor-κB inhibitors as potential novel anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of immune glomerulonephritis,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 161, no. 4, pp. 1497–1505, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. C. K. Roberts, D. Won, S. Pruthi et al., “Effect of a short-term diet and exercise intervention on oxidative stress, inflammation, MMP-9, and monocyte chemotactic activity in men with metabolic syndrome factors,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1657–1665, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. S. B. Kim, U. Eskiocak, P. Ly et al., “Bardoxolone-methyl (CDDO-Me): an antioxidant, antiinflammatory modulator is a novel radiation countermeasure and mitigator,” in Proceedings of the 22nd Annual NASA Space Radiation Investigators' Workshop, 2011.
  107. P. E. Pergola, M. Krauth, J. W. Huff et al., “Effect of bardoxolone methyl on kidney function in patients with T2D and stage 3b-4 CKD,” American Journal of Nephrology, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 469–476, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. P. E. Pergola, P. Raskin, R. D. Toto et al., “Bardoxolone methyl and kidney function in CKD with type 2 diabetes,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 365, no. 4, pp. 327–336, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. “Bardoxolone methyl evaluation in patients with chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes: the ocurrence of renal events (BEACON),” Identifier: NCT01351675, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/.