International Journal of Nephrology / 2012 / Article / Fig 3

Review Article

Mechanisms of Glomerular Albumin Filtration and Tubular Reabsorption

Figure 3

Electron microscopy of human renal biopsy samples. (a) Glomerular basement membrane rupture (arrowhead) in IgA nephropathy. (b) Podocyte loss and a denuded glomerular basement membrane in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Proteins were observed as nonuniform electron dense substances in the capillary lumen and also in the urinary space adjacent to the denuded glomerular basement membrane (arrow heads), suggesting large amounts of protein including albumin filtered through the denuded glomerular basement membrane, leading to proteinuria. (c) Podocyte detachment and apoptosis in membranous nephropathy with subepithelial electron dense deposits. (d) Diffuse foot process effacement with reduction of the slit membranes in minimal-change nephrotic syndrome. Bars indicate 500 nm.

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