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International Journal of Nephrology
Volume 2012, Article ID 720429, 10 pages
Review Article

Achieving Salt Restriction in Chronic Kidney Disease

1Nutrition and Dietetics Department, Princess Alexandra Hospital, 199 Ipswich Road, Woolloongabba, Brisbane, QLD 4102, Australia
2School of Human Movement Studies, University of Queensland, Blair Drive, St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
3Department of Nephrology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, University of Queensland, Ipswich Road, Woolloongabba, Brisbane, QLD 4102, Australia

Received 19 July 2012; Accepted 29 October 2012

Academic Editor: Siren Sezer

Copyright © 2012 Emma J. McMahon et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


There is consistent evidence linking excessive dietary sodium intake to risk factors for cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression in CKD patients; however, additional research is needed. In research trials and clinical practice, implementing and monitoring sodium intake present significant challenges. Epidemiological studies have shown that sodium intake remains high, and intervention studies have reported varied success with participant adherence to a sodium-restricted diet. Examining barriers to sodium restriction, as well as factors that predict adherence to a low sodium diet, can aid researchers and clinicians in implementing a sodium-restricted diet. In this paper, we critically review methods for measuring sodium intake with a specific focus on CKD patients, appraise dietary adherence, and factors that have optimized sodium restriction in key research trials and discuss barriers to sodium restriction and factors that must be considered when recommending a sodium-restricted diet.