Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Nephrology
Volume 2012, Article ID 919128, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/919128
Review Article

Renal Development and Blood Pressure in Offspring from Dams Submitted to High-Sodium Intake during Pregnancy and Lactation

1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida dos Bandeirantes 3900, 14049-900, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil
2Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida dos Bandeirantes 3900, 14049-900, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil

Received 26 March 2012; Accepted 8 June 2012

Academic Editor: Frida Zaladek Gil

Copyright © 2012 Terezila M. Coimbra et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Exposure to an adverse environment in utero appears to programme physiology and metabolism permanently, with long-term consequences for health of the fetus or offspring. It was observed that the offspring from dams submitted to high-sodium intake during pregnancy present disturbances in renal development and in blood pressure. These alterations were associated with lower plasma levels of angiotensin II (AII) and changes in renal AII receptor I (AT1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) expressions during post natal kidney development. Clinical and experimental evidence show that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) participates in renal development. Many effects of AII are mediated through MAPK pathways. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs) play a pivotal role in cellular proliferation and differentiation. In conclusion, high-sodium intake during pregnancy and lactation can provoke disturbances in renal development in offspring leading to functional and structural alterations that persist in adult life. These changes can be related at least in part with the decrease in RAS activity considering that this system has an important role in renal development.