Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Nephrology
Volume 2014, Article ID 127943, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/127943
Clinical Study

Cystatin C as a Predictor of Mortality and Cardiovascular Events in a Population with Chronic Kidney Disease

1Department of Nephrology, Nephrology Service, Hospital Universitario Severo Ochoa, Avenida. Orellana s/n, Leganés, 28911 Madrid, Spain
2Department of Medical Specialties, Psychology and Applied Pedagogy, Universidad European de Madrid, Villaviciosa de Odon, 28670 Madrid, Spain
3Hypertension Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitario de Mostoles, Móstoles, 28935 Madrid, Spain
4Department of Biochemistry, Hospital Universitario Severo Ochoa, Leganes, 28911 Madrid, Spain

Received 20 September 2013; Revised 14 December 2013; Accepted 17 December 2013; Published 11 February 2014

Academic Editor: Greg Tesch

Copyright © 2014 Ana Vigil et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Zahran, A. El-Husseini, and A. Shoker, “Can cystatin C replace creatinine to estimate glomerular filtration rate? A literature review,” American Journal of Nephrology, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 197–205, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. B. O. Eriksen, U. D. Mathisen, T. Melsom et al., “Cystatin C is not a better estimator of GFR than plasma creatinine in the general population,” Kidney International, vol. 78, no. 12, pp. 1305–1311, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. C. A. Peralta, R. Katz, M. J. Sarnak et al., “Cystatin C identifies chronic kidney disease patients at higher risk for complications,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 147–155, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. L. Vigil, M. Lopez, E. Condés et al., “Cystatin C is associated with the metabolic syndrome and other cardiovascular risk factors in a hypertensive population,” Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 201–209, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. Magnusson, B. Hedblad, G. Engström, M. Persson, P. Nilsson, and O. Melander, “High levels of cystatin C predict the metabolic syndrome: the prospective Malmö Diet and Cancer study,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 274, no. 2, pp. 192–199, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. S. Balta, S. Demirkol, S. A. Ay, M. Cakar, H. Sarlak, and T. Celik, “Serum cystatin-C levels correlate with endothelial dysfunction in patients with the metabolic syndrome,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 274, no. 2, pp. 200–201, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. C. Angelidis, S. Deftereos, G. Giannopoulos et al., “Cystatin C: an emerging biomarker in cardiovascular disease,” Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 164–179, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. L. A. Stevens, J. Coresh, C. H. Schmid et al., “Estimating GFR using serum cystatin C alone and in combination with serum creatinine: a pooled analysis of 3,418 individuals with CKD,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 395–406, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. S. Levey, L. A. Stevens, C. H. Schmid et al., “A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 150, no. 9, pp. 604–612, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. S. Keith, G. A. Nichols, C. M. Gullion, J. B. Brown, and D. H. Smith, “Longitudinal follow-up and outcomes among a population with chronic kidney disease in a large managed care organization,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 164, no. 6, pp. 659–663, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. S. Go, G. M. Chertow, D. Fan, C. E. McCulloch, and C.-Y. Hsu, “Chronic kidney disease and the risks of death, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 351, no. 13, pp. 1296–1370, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. National Kidney Foundation, “K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 39, no. 2, supplement 1, pp. S1–S266, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  13. M. G. Shlipak, R. Katz, M. J. Sarnak et al., “Cystatin C and prognosis for cardiovascular and kidney outcomes in elderly persons without chronic kidney disease,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 145, no. 4, pp. 237–246, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Cushman, E. S. Cornell, P. R. Howard, E. G. Bovill, and R. P. Tracy, “Laboratory methods and quality assurance in the Cardiovascular Health study,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 264–270, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. P. Fried, N. O. Borhani, P. Enright et al., “The Cardiovascular Health study: design and rationale,” Annals of Epidemiology, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 263–276, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. A. Peralta, M. G. Shlipak, S. Judd et al., “Detection of chronic kidney disease with creatinine, cystatin C, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and association with progression to end-stage renal disease and mortality,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 305, no. 15, pp. 1545–1552, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. I. Feig, D.-H. Kang, and R. J. Johnson, “Medical progress: uric acid and cardiovascular risk,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 359, no. 17, pp. 1811–1821, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. T. Nakagawa, D.-H. Kang, D. Feig et al., “Unearthing uric acid: an ancient factor with recently found significance in renal and cardiovascular disease,” Kidney International, vol. 69, no. 10, pp. 1722–1725, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. Y. S. Kim, J. P. Guevara, K. M. Kim, H. K. Choi, D. F. Heitjan, and D. A. Albert, “Hyperuricemia and coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Arthritis Care and Research, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 170–180, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. Y. K. Seo, J. P. Guevara, M. K. Kyoung, K. C. Hyon, D. F. Heitjan, and D. A. Albert, “Hyperuricemia and risk of stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Arthritis Care and Research, vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 885–892, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. C. M. Gagliardi, M. H. Miname, and R. D. Santos, “Uric acid: a marker of increased cardiovascular risk,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 202, no. 1, pp. 11–17, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. E. Suliman, R. J. Johnson, E. García-López et al., “J-shaped mortality relationship for uric acid in CKD,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 761–771, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. W.-C. Liu, C.-C. Hung, S.-C. Chen et al., “Association of hyperuricemia with renal outcomes, cardiovascular disease, and mortality,” Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 541–548, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Madero, M. J. Sarnak, X. Wang et al., “Uric acid and long-term outcomes in CKD,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 796–803, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. S. Krolewski, J. H. Warram, C. Forsblom, A. M. Smiles, L. Thorn, J. Skupien et al., “Serum concentration of cystatin C and risk of end-stage renal disease in diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 2311–2316, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  26. C. S. Fox, P. Gona, M. G. Larson et al., “A multi-marker approach to predict incident CKD and microalbuminuria,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 2143–2149, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus