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International Journal of Nephrology
Volume 2015, Article ID 568702, 6 pages
Research Article

High Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease in End-Stage Kidney Disease Patients Ongoing Hemodialysis in Peru: Why Should We Care About It?

1University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box MED, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
2Facultad de Medicina de San Fernando, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (UNMSM), Lima, Peru

Received 15 May 2015; Revised 8 July 2015; Accepted 8 July 2015

Academic Editor: Alessandro Amore

Copyright © 2015 Katia Bravo-Jaimes et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Purpose. To determine clinical, biochemical, and pharmacological characteristics as well as cardiovascular disease prevalence and its associated factors among end-stage kidney disease patients receiving hemodialysis in the main hemodialysis center in Lima, Peru. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 103 patients. Clinical charts were reviewed and an echocardiogram was performed to determine prevalence of cardiovascular disease, defined as the presence of systolic/diastolic dysfunction, coronary heart disease, ventricular dysrhythmias, cerebrovascular disease, and/or peripheral vascular disease. Associations between cardiovascular disease and clinical, biochemical, and dialysis factors were sought using prevalence ratio. A robust Poisson regression model was used to quantify possible associations. Results. Cardiovascular disease prevalence was 81.6%, mainly due to diastolic dysfunction. It was significantly associated with age older than 50 years, metabolic syndrome, C-reactive protein levels, effective blood flow ≤ 300 mL/min, severe anemia, and absence of mild anemia. However, in the regression analysis only age older than 50 years, effective blood flow ≤ 300 mL/min, and absence of mild anemia were associated. Conclusions. Cardiovascular disease prevalence is high in patients receiving hemodialysis in the main center in Lima. Diastolic dysfunction, age, specific hemoglobin levels, and effective blood flow may play an important role.