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International Journal of Nephrology
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 5241482, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5241482
Research Article

Incidence and Risk Factors for Early Acute Kidney Injury in Nonsurgical Patients: A Cohort Study

1Department of Internal Medicine, Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud, San Jose Hospital, School of Medicine, Bogotá, Colombia
2Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud, San Jose Hospital, School of Medicine, Bogotá, Colombia
3Department of Physiological Sciences, School of Medicine, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota branch, Bogotá, Colombia

Correspondence should be addressed to Javier Enrique Cely; moc.liamtoh@dsnylecreivaj

Received 27 November 2016; Revised 14 March 2017; Accepted 28 March 2017; Published 11 April 2017

Academic Editor: Ziyad Al-Aly

Copyright © 2017 Javier Enrique Cely et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Introduction. Detecting acute kidney injury (AKI) in the first days of hospitalization could prevent potentially fatal complications. However, epidemiological data are scarce, especially on nonsurgical patients. Objectives. To determine the incidence and risk factors associated with AKI within five days of hospitalization (EAKI). Methods. Prospective cohort of patients hospitalized in the Internal Medicine Department. Results. A total of 16% of 400 patients developed EAKI. The associated risk factors were prehospital treatment with nephrotoxic drugs (2.21 OR; 95% CI 1.12–4.36, ), chronic kidney disease (CKD) in stages 3 to 5 (3.56 OR; 95% CI 1.55–8.18, ), and venous thromboembolism (VTE) at admission (5.05 OR; 95% CI 1.59–16.0, ). The median length of hospital stay was higher among patients who developed EAKI (8 [IQR 5–14] versus 6 [IQR 4–10], ) and was associated with an increased requirement for dialysis (4.87 OR 95% CI 2.54 to 8.97, ) and in-hospital death (3.45 OR; 95% CI 2.18 to 5.48, ). Conclusions. The incidence of EAKI in nonsurgical patients is similar to the worldwide incidence of AKI. The risk factors included CKD from stage 3 onwards, prehospital treatment with nephrotoxic drugs, and VTE at admission. EAKI is associated with prolonged hospital stay, increased mortality rate, and dialysis requirement.