International Journal of Nephrology / 2019 / Article / Tab 4

Research Article

High Incidence of Moderately Reduced Renal Function and Lead Bioaccumulation in Agricultural Workers in Assin South District, Ghana: A Community-Based Case-Control Study

Table 4

Heavy metal levels in the serum of participants.

Cases (N = 81)Controls (N = 61) value

Lead (Pb)<0.0001z
 Detectable45 (55.6)10 (16.4)
 Undetectable36 (44.4)51 (83.6)
Arsenic (As)
 Detectable43 (53.1)6 (9.8)<0.0001z
 Undetectable38 (46.9)55 (90.2)
Cadmium (Cd)
 Detectable1 (1.2)0 (0)
 Undetectable80 (99.8)61 (100)
Serum levels of heavy metals (mg/L)
 Pb1.1800.27820.0003
 As0.090230.093830.8964

zProportions compared using the chi-square test; median compared using the Mann–Whitney U test.

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