International Journal of Navigation and Observation The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Performance Evaluation of Pedestrian Locations Based on Contemporary Smartphones Mon, 13 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Nowadays, a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) unit is embedded in nearly every smartphone. This unit allows a smartphone to detect the user’s location and motion, and it makes functions, such as navigation, tracking, and compass applications, available to the user. Therefore, the GNSS unit has become one of the most important features in modern smartphones. However, because most smartphones incorporate relatively low-cost GNSS chips, their localization accuracy varies depending on the number of accessible GNSS satellites, and it is highly dependent on environmental factors that cause interference such as forests and buildings. This research evaluated the performance of the GNSS units inside two different models of smartphones in determining pedestrian locations in different environments. The results indicate that the overall performances of the two devices were related directly to the environment, type of smartphone/GNSS chipset, and the application used to collect the information. Jalal Ibrahim Al-Azizi and Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri Copyright © 2017 Jalal Ibrahim Al-Azizi and Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri. All rights reserved. Simulation of GNSS Availability in Urban Environments Using a Panoramic Image Dataset Thu, 26 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Performance of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning in urban environments is hindered by poor satellite availability because there are many man-made and natural objects in urban environments that obstruct satellite signals. To evaluate the availability of GNSS in cities, this paper presents a software simulation of GNSS availability in urban areas using a panoramic image dataset from Google Street View. Photogrammetric image processing techniques are applied to reconstruct fisheye sky view images and detect signal obstacles. Two comparisons of the results from the simulation and real world observation in Bangkok and Tokyo are also presented and discussed for accuracy assessment. Sakpod Tongleamnak and Masahiko Nagai Copyright © 2017 Sakpod Tongleamnak and Masahiko Nagai. All rights reserved. Gap Filling of the CALYPSO HF Radar Sea Surface Current Data through Past Measurements and Satellite Wind Observations Wed, 09 Nov 2016 10:19:02 +0000 High frequency (HF) radar installations are becoming essential components of operational real-time marine monitoring systems. The underlying technology is being further enhanced to fully exploit the potential of mapping sea surface currents and wave fields over wide areas with high spatial and temporal resolution, even in adverse meteo-marine conditions. Data applications are opening to many different sectors, reaching out beyond research and monitoring, targeting downstream services in support to key national and regional stakeholders. In the CALYPSO project, the HF radar system composed of CODAR SeaSonde stations installed in the Malta Channel is specifically serving to assist in the response against marine oil spills and to support search and rescue at sea. One key drawback concerns the sporadic inconsistency in the spatial coverage of radar data which is dictated by the sea state as well as by interference from unknown sources that may be competing with transmissions in the same frequency band. This work investigates the use of Machine Learning techniques to fill in missing data in a high resolution grid. Past radar data and wind vectors obtained from satellites are used to predict missing information and provide a more consistent dataset. Adam Gauci, Aldo Drago, and John Abela Copyright © 2016 Adam Gauci et al. All rights reserved. The Use of the Total Electron Content Measured by Navigation Satellites to Estimate Ionospheric Conditions Mon, 24 Oct 2016 12:28:21 +0000 Measurements of delays of the signals radiated by transmitters of navigational satellites allow us to obtain the total electron content (TEC). In addition, measurements of TEC allow solving problems such as development of local, regional, and global models of TEC and correction of ionospheric delay for increasing accuracy of positioning. Now, it is possible to set the task of calculation of critical frequency foF2 with the use of experimental values of TEC in a global scale. For this purpose it is necessary to know an equivalent slab thickness of the ionosphere which is a coefficient of proportionality between TEC and a maximum density of the ionosphere. The present paper is devoted to the analysis of investigation and utilization of this parameter. It is shown that (1) existing models of τ are not empirical and not always can provide an adequate accuracy of foF2 calculation, (2) experimental median (med) provides much larger accuracy of foF2 calculation than the empirical model and variations from day to day and allows filling gaps in the ionosonde data, and (3) it is possible to use a hyperbolic approximation and coefficient for development of a global model of . Olga Maltseva and Natalia Mozhaeva Copyright © 2016 Olga Maltseva and Natalia Mozhaeva. All rights reserved. Estimation of Scintillation Indices: A Novel Approach Based on Local Kernel Regression Methods Sun, 07 Aug 2016 06:36:52 +0000 We present a comparative study of computational methods for estimation of ionospheric scintillation indices. First, we review the conventional approaches based on Fourier transformation and low-pass/high-pass frequency filtration. Next, we introduce a novel method based on nonparametric local regression with bias Corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AICC). All methods are then applied to data from the Norwegian Regional Ionospheric Scintillation Network (NRISN), which is shown to be dominated by phase scintillation and not amplitude scintillation. We find that all methods provide highly correlated results, demonstrating the validity of the new approach to this problem. All methods are shown to be very sensitive to filter characteristics and the averaging interval. Finally, we find that the new method is more robust to discontinuous phase observations than conventional methods. Mohammed Ouassou, Oddgeir Kristiansen, Jon G. O. Gjevestad, Knut Stanley Jacobsen, and Yngvild L. Andalsvik Copyright © 2016 Mohammed Ouassou et al. All rights reserved. Development of a Low-Level Control System for the ROV Visor3 Wed, 20 Jul 2016 08:40:29 +0000 This paper addresses the development of the simulation of the low-level control system for the underwater remotely operated vehicle Visor3. The 6-DOF mathematical model of Visor3 is presented using two coordinated systems: Earth-fixed and body-fixed frames. The navigation, guidance, and control (NGC) structure is divided into three layers: the high level or the mission planner; the mid-level or the path planner; and the low level formed by the navigation and control systems. The nonlinear model-based observer is developed using the extended Kalman filter (EKF) which uses the linearization of the model to estimate the current state. The behavior of the observer is verified through simulations using Simulink®. An experiment was conducted with a trajectory that describes changes in the and and yaw components. To accomplish this task, two algorithms are compared: a multiloop PID and PID with gravity compensation. These controllers and the nonlinear observer are tested using the 6-DOF mathematical model of Visor3. The control and navigation systems are a fundamental part of the low-level control system that will allow Visor3’s operators to take advantage of more advanced vehicle’s capabilities during inspection tasks of port facilities, hydroelectric dams, and oceanographic research. Santiago Rúa and Rafael E. Vásquez Copyright © 2016 Santiago Rúa and Rafael E. Vásquez. All rights reserved. FFT Splitting for Improved FPGA-Based Acquisition of GNSS Signals Wed, 16 Dec 2015 09:42:41 +0000 With modern global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals, the FFT-based parallel code search acquisition must handle the frequent sign transitions due to the data or the secondary code. There is a straightforward solution to this problem, which consists in doubling the length of the FFTs, leading to a significant increase of the complexity. The authors already proposed a method to reduce the complexity without impairing the probability of detection. In particular, this led to a 50% memory reduction for an FPGA implementation. In this paper, the authors propose another approach, namely, the splitting of a large FFT into three or five smaller FFTs, providing better performances and higher flexibility. For an FPGA implementation, compared to the previously proposed approach, at the expense of a slight increase of the logic and multiplier resources, the splitting into three and five allows, respectively, a reduction of 40% and 64% of the memory, and of 25% and 37.5% of the processing time. Moreover, with the splitting into three FFTs, the algorithm is applicable for sampling frequencies up to 24.576 MHz for L5 band signals, against 21.846 MHz with the previously proposed algorithm. The algorithm is applied here to the GPS L5 and Galileo E5a, E5b, and E1 signals. Jérôme Leclère, Cyril Botteron, René Jr. Landry, and Pierre-André Farine Copyright © 2015 Jérôme Leclère et al. All rights reserved. A DCM Based Attitude Estimation Algorithm for Low-Cost MEMS IMUs Mon, 30 Nov 2015 07:01:20 +0000 An attitude estimation algorithm is developed using an adaptive extended Kalman filter for low-cost microelectromechanical-system (MEMS) triaxial accelerometers and gyroscopes, that is, inertial measurement units (IMUs). Although these MEMS sensors are relatively cheap, they give more inaccurate measurements than conventional high-quality gyroscopes and accelerometers. To be able to use these low-cost MEMS sensors with precision in all situations, a novel attitude estimation algorithm is proposed for fusing triaxial gyroscope and accelerometer measurements. An extended Kalman filter is implemented to estimate attitude in direction cosine matrix (DCM) formation and to calibrate gyroscope biases online. We use a variable measurement covariance for acceleration measurements to ensure robustness against temporary nongravitational accelerations, which usually induce errors when estimating attitude with ordinary algorithms. The proposed algorithm enables accurate gyroscope online calibration by using only a triaxial gyroscope and accelerometer. It outperforms comparable state-of-the-art algorithms in those cases when there are either biases in the gyroscope measurements or large temporary nongravitational accelerations present. A low-cost, temperature-based calibration method is also discussed for initially calibrating gyroscope and acceleration sensors. An open source implementation of the algorithm is also available. Heikki Hyyti and Arto Visala Copyright © 2015 Heikki Hyyti and Arto Visala. All rights reserved. Enhancing Weak-Signal Carrier Phase Tracking in GNSS Receivers Mon, 23 Nov 2015 09:06:42 +0000 Examining the performance of the GNSS PLL, this paper presents novel results describing the statistical properties of four popular phase estimators under both strong- and weak-signal conditions when subject to thermal noise, deterministic dynamics, and typical pedestrian motion. Design routines are developed which employ these results to enhance weak-signal performance of the PLL in terms of transient response, steady-state errors, and cycle-slips. By examining both single and data-pilot signals, it is shown that appropriate design and tuning of the PLL can significantly enhance tracking performance, in particular when used for pedestrian applications. James T. Curran Copyright © 2015 James T. Curran. All rights reserved. Reduced-Complexity Algorithms for Indoor Map-Aware Localization Systems Wed, 28 Oct 2015 11:15:39 +0000 The knowledge of environmental maps (i.e., map-awareness) can appreciably improve the accuracy of optimal methods for position estimation in indoor scenarios. This improvement, however, is achieved at the price of a significant complexity increase with respect to the case of map-unawareness, specially for large maps. This is mainly due to the fact that optimal map-aware estimation algorithms require integrating highly nonlinear functions or solving nonlinear and nonconvex constrained optimization problems. In this paper, various techniques for reducing the complexity of such estimators are developed. In particular, two novel strategies for restricting the search domain of map-aware position estimators are developed and the exploitation of state-of-the-art numerical integration and optimization methods is investigated; this leads to the development of a new family of suboptimal map-aware localization algorithms. Our numerical and experimental results evidence that the accuracy of these algorithms is very close to that offered by their optimal counterparts, despite their significantly lower computational complexity. Francesco Montorsi, Fabrizio Pancaldi, and Giorgio M. Vitetta Copyright © 2015 Francesco Montorsi et al. All rights reserved. A Ray-Tracing Technique to Characterize GPS Multipath in the Frequency Domain Mon, 28 Sep 2015 08:22:05 +0000 Multipath propagation is one of the major sources of error in GPS measurements. In this research, a ray-tracing technique is proposed to study the frequency domain characteristics of multipath propagation. The Doppler frequency difference, also known as multipath phase rate and fading frequency, between direct (line-of-sight, LOS) and reflected (non-line-of-sight, NLOS) signals is studied as a function of satellite elevation and azimuth, as well as distance between the reflector and the static receiver. The accuracy of the method is verified with measured Doppler differences from real data collected in a downtown environment. The use of ray-tracing derived predicted Doppler differences in a receiver, as a means of alleviating the multipath induced errors in the measurement, is presented and discussed. Naveen S. Gowdayyanadoddi, James T. Curran, Ali Broumandan, and Gérard Lachapelle Copyright © 2015 Naveen S. Gowdayyanadoddi et al. All rights reserved. A Simulation of the Reception of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Signals in Low Earth Orbit Sun, 23 Aug 2015 11:39:56 +0000 Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) is an air traffic surveillance technology in which aircraft transmit position and identification. The development of space-based ADS-B will allow precise control of aircraft in areas that are not covered by radar, such as oceanic regions and high latitudes. The Royal Military College of Canada has developed a spaceborne ADS-B receiver scheduled to fly on the Canadian Advanced Nanospace eXperiment-7 (CanX-7) satellite. The payload is planned to collect data over the North Atlantic region, which will then be compared to truth data provided by air traffic services. A model was created to determine power levels arriving at the satellite to provide confidence in the ADS-B receiver and antenna proposed for CanX-7. The model takes into account neutral atmosphere and ionospheric effects, aircraft-satellite geometry, and antenna radiation patterns. A simulation was run by inserting real aircraft data from the North Atlantic Track System into the model and placing the satellite at altitudes of 400, 600, and 800 km. Results of the simulation indicate that power received at the satellite, ranging between −98.5 dBm and −103 dBm for the selected altitudes, will be sufficient to successfully conduct the mission. Richard Van Der Pryt and Ron Vincent Copyright © 2015 Richard Van Der Pryt and Ron Vincent. All rights reserved. Acoustic Self-Calibrating System for Indoor Smart Phone Tracking Thu, 26 Feb 2015 12:40:19 +0000 This paper presents an acoustic indoor localization system for commercial smart phones that emit high pitched acoustic signals beyond the audible range. The acoustic signals with an identifier code modulated on the signal are detected by self-built receivers which are placed at the ceiling or on walls in a room. The receivers are connected in a Wi-Fi network, such that they synchronize their clocks and exchange the time differences of arrival (TDoA) of the received chirps. The location of the smart phone is calculated by TDoA multilateration. The precise time measuring of sound enables high precision localization in indoor areas. Our approach enables applications that require high accuracy, such as finding products in a supermarket or guiding blind people through complicated buildings. We have evaluated our system in real-world experiments using different algorithms for calibration-free localization and different types of sound signals. The adaptive GOGO-CFAR threshold enables a detection of 48% of the chirp pulses even at a distance of 30 m. In addition, we have compared the trajectory of a pedestrian carrying a smart phone to reference positions of an optic system. Consequently, the localization error is observed to be less than 30 cm. Alexander Ens, Fabian Höflinger, Johannes Wendeberg, Joachim Hoppe, Rui Zhang, Amir Bannoura, Leonhard M. Reindl, and Christian Schindelhauer Copyright © 2015 Alexander Ens et al. All rights reserved. Next Generation Network Real-Time Kinematic Interpolation Segment to Improve the User Accuracy Thu, 19 Feb 2015 09:14:08 +0000 This paper demonstrates that automatic selection of the right interpolation/smoothing method in a GNSS-based network real-time kinematic (NRTK) interpolation segment can improve the accuracy of the rover position estimates and also the processing time in the NRTK processing center. The methods discussed and investigated are inverse distance weighting (IDW); bilinear and bicubic spline interpolation; kriging interpolation; thin-plate splines; and numerical approximation methods for spatial processes. The methods are implemented and tested using GNSS data from reference stations in the Norwegian network RTK service called CPOS. Data sets with an average baseline between reference stations of 60–70 km were selected. 12 prediction locations were used to analyze the performance of the interpolation methods by computing and comparing different measures of the goodness of fit such as the root mean square error (RMSE), mean square error, and mean absolute error, and also the computation time was compared. Results of the tests show that ordinary kriging with the Matérn covariance function clearly provides the best results. The thin-plate spline provides the second best results of the methods selected and with the test data used. Mohammed Ouassou, Anna B. O. Jensen, Jon G. O. Gjevestad, and Oddgeir Kristiansen Copyright © 2015 Mohammed Ouassou et al. All rights reserved. Design of a Fault Detection and Isolation System for Intelligent Vehicle Navigation System Sat, 31 Jan 2015 12:38:38 +0000 This paper deals with the design of a fault detection and isolation (FDI) system for an intelligent vehicle, a vehicle equipped with advanced driver assistance system (ADAS). The ADASs are outfitted with sensors for acquiring various information about the vehicle and its surroundings. Since these sensors are sensitive to faults, an efficient FDI system should be developed. The designed FDI system is comprised of three parts: a detection part, a decision part, and a fault management part. The detection part applies a generalized observer scheme (GOS). In the GOS, there is bank of extended Kalman filters (EKFs), each excited by all except one sensor measurement. The residual generated from the measurement update of each EKF is therefore sensitive to all sensor faults but one. This way, the fault sensitivity pattern of the residual makes it possible to detect a fault and locate the faulty sensor. The designed FDI system has been implemented and tested off-line with actual experiment data. Good results have been obtained with diagnosing individual sensor faults and outputting fault-free vehicle states. Wei Huang and Xiaoxin Su Copyright © 2015 Wei Huang and Xiaoxin Su. All rights reserved. Experimental Evaluation of Cooperative Relative Positioning for Intelligent Transportation System Sun, 30 Nov 2014 06:55:06 +0000 Support system for safe driving heavily depends on global navigation satellite system. Pseudoranges between satellites and vehicles are measured to compute vehicles’ positions and their relative positions. In urban areas, however, multipath errors (MPEs) in pseudoranges, caused by obstruction and reflection of roadside buildings, greatly degrade the precision of relative positions. On the other hand, simply removing all reflected signals might lead to a shortage of satellites in fixing positions. In our previous work, we suggested solving this dilemma by cooperative relative positioning (CoRelPos) which exploits spatial correlation of MPEs. In this paper, we collected the trace data of pseudoranges by driving cars in urban areas, analyzed the properties of MPEs (specifically, their dependency on signal strength, elevation angles of satellites, and receivers’ speeds), and highlighted their spatial correlation. On this basis, the CoRelPos scheme is refined by considering the dynamics of MPEs. Evaluation results under practical vehicular scenarios confirm that properties of MPEs can be exploited to improve the precision of relative positions. Suhua Tang, Nao Kawanishi, Rei Furukawa, and Nobuaki Kubo Copyright © 2014 Suhua Tang et al. All rights reserved. Combination of the DVZ Method, Particle Filter, and Fuzzy Controller for Electric Wheelchair Navigation Tue, 18 Nov 2014 12:54:57 +0000 Electric wheelchair is one of the many engines used for the movement of aged and disabled people. This paper introduces an obstacle avoidance using deformable virtual zone (DVZ), particle filter to improve localization and fuzzy controller to join desired target. This controller is developed to increase the independence of disabled and aged people, specifically those who suffer not only disability in the lower limbs but also visual disturbances. To overcome these problems, different perceptive abilities or sensors were introduced. In this context, we developed a control system composed by fuzzy controller to join a target, DVZ method for obstacle avoidance, and particle filter for localization. Also, we present the simulation results of the wheelchair navigation system. Malek Njah and Mohamed Jallouli Copyright © 2014 Malek Njah and Mohamed Jallouli. All rights reserved. P-RANSAC: An Integrity Monitoring Approach for GNSS Signal Degraded Scenario Tue, 23 Sep 2014 10:09:08 +0000 Satellite navigation is critical in signal-degraded environments where signals are corrupted and GNSS systems do not guarantee an accurate and continuous positioning. In particular measurements in urban scenario are strongly affected by gross errors, degrading navigation solution; hence a quality check on the measurements, defined as RAIM, is important. Classical RAIM techniques work properly in case of single outlier but have to be modified to take into account the simultaneous presence of multiple outliers. This work is focused on the implementation of random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithm, developed for computer vision tasks, in the GNSS context. This method is capable of detecting multiple satellite failures; it calculates position solutions based on subsets of four satellites and compares them with the pseudoranges of all the satellites not contributing to the solution. In this work, a modification to the original RANSAC method is proposed and an analysis of its performance is conducted, processing data collected in a static test. Gaetano Castaldo, Antonio Angrisano, Salvatore Gaglione, and Salvatore Troisi Copyright © 2014 Gaetano Castaldo et al. All rights reserved. The Use of Quick Response (QR) Codes in Landmark-Based Pedestrian Navigation Wed, 23 Apr 2014 13:31:31 +0000 Vehicle navigation systems usually simply function by calculating the shortest fastest route over a road network. In contrast, pedestrian navigation can have more diverse concerns. Pedestrians are not constrained to road/path networks; their route may involve going into buildings (where accurate satellite locational signals are not available) and they have different priorities, for example, preferring routes that are quieter or more sheltered from the weather. In addition, there are differences in how people are best directed: pedestrians noticing landmarks such as buildings, doors, and steps rather than junctions and sign posts. Landmarks exist both indoors and outdoors. A system has been developed that uses quick response (QR) codes affixed to registered landmarks allowing users to localise themselves with respect to their route and with navigational instructions given in terms of these landmarks. In addition, the system includes images of each landmark helping users to navigate visually in addition to through textual instructions and route maps. The system runs on a mobile device; the users use the device’s camera to register each landmark’s QR code and so update their position (particularly indoors) and progress through the route itinerary. Anahid Basiri, Pouria Amirian, and Adam Winstanley Copyright © 2014 Anahid Basiri et al. All rights reserved. A Simple Three-Dimensional Matrix Method for Global Constellation Intrasatellite Link Topological Design Sun, 30 Mar 2014 07:43:25 +0000 A three-dimensional matrix method is proposed in this paper for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) constellation Intrasatellite Link (ISL) topological design. The rows and columns of proposed matrix contain the information of both constellation orbit planes and satellites in each orbit plane. The third dimension of proposed matrix represents the time sequences during constellation movement. The proposed method has virtues of better advantage of conceptual clarity and computational efficiency, meanwhile, some properties of ISLs in the constellation can be proved easily. At the second part of this paper, a link assignment and optimal routing problem is proposed using three-dimensional topology matrixes, which aimed to minimize the relay hops during the process of data uploading to whole constellation network. Moreover, some practical constrains as antenna beam coverage and relative velocity are considered and analyzed in detail. Finally, some numerical simulations are provided, and the results demonstrated the promising performance of proposed topological method in reduction of computation burden, clear ISL conception, and so forth; the efficiency of provided optimal ISL routing problem is also proved. Xiaoliang Wang, Yansong Meng, Zhe Su, Gang Wang, Lixin Zhang, and Deren Gong Copyright © 2014 Xiaoliang Wang et al. All rights reserved. Use of the Wavelet Transform for Interference Detection and Mitigation in Global Navigation Satellite Systems Wed, 26 Feb 2014 12:28:47 +0000 Radio frequency interference detection and mitigation are becoming of paramount importance due to the increasing number of services and applications based on the position obtained by means of Global Navigation Satellite Systems. A way to cope with such threats is the implementation in the receiver of advanced signal processing algorithm able to raise proper warning or improve the receiver performance. In this paper, we propose a method based on the Wavelet Transform able to split the useful signal from the interfering component in a transformed domain. The wavelet packet decomposition and proper statistical thresholds allow the algorithm to show very good performance in case of multiple pulse interference as well as in the case of narrowband interference, two scenarios in which traditional countermeasures might not be effective. Luciano Musumeci and Fabio Dovis Copyright © 2014 Luciano Musumeci and Fabio Dovis. All rights reserved. Benefit of the NeQuick Galileo Version in GNSS Single-Point Positioning Wed, 27 Nov 2013 08:27:56 +0000 The GNSS measurements are strongly affected by ionospheric effects, due to the signal propagation through ionosphere; these effects could severely degrade the position; hence, a model to limit or remove the ionospheric error is necessary. The use of several techniques (DGPS, SBAS, and GBAS) reduces the ionospheric effect, but implies the use of expensive devices and/or complex architectures necessary to meet strong requirements in terms of accuracy and reliability for safety critical application. The cheapest and most widespread GNSS devices are single frequency stand-alone receivers able to partially correct this kind of error using suitable models. These algorithms compute the ionospheric delay starting from ionospheric model, which uses parameters broadcast within the navigation messages. NeQuick is a three-dimensional and time-dependent ionospheric model adopted by Galileo, the European GNSS, and developed by International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) together with Institute for Geophysics, Astrophysics, and Meteorology of the University of Graz. The aim of this paper is the performance assessment in single point positioning of the NeQuick Galileo version provided by ESA and the comparison with respect to the Klobuchar model used for GPS; the analysis is performed in position domain and the errors are examined in terms of RMS and maximum error for the horizontal and vertical components. A deep analysis is also provided for the application of the exanimated model in the first possible Galileo only position fix. Antonio Angrisano, Salvatore Gaglione, Ciro Gioia, Marco Massaro, and Salvatore Troisi Copyright © 2013 Antonio Angrisano et al. All rights reserved. Kalman Filter-Based Hybrid Indoor Position Estimation Technique in Bluetooth Networks Sun, 22 Sep 2013 16:48:25 +0000 This paper presents an extended Kalman filter-based hybrid indoor position estimation technique which is based on integration of fingerprinting and trilateration approach. In this paper, Euclidian distance formula is used for the first time instead of radio propagation model to convert the received signal to distance estimates. This technique combines the features of fingerprinting and trilateration approach in a more simple and robust way. The proposed hybrid technique works in two stages. In the first stage, it uses an online phase of fingerprinting and calculates nearest neighbors (NN) of the target node, while in the second stage it uses trilateration approach to estimate the coordinate without the use of radio propagation model. The distance between calculated NN and detective access points (AP) is estimated using Euclidian distance formula. Thus, distance between NN and APs provides radii for trilateration approach. Therefore, the position estimation accuracy compared to the lateration approach is better. Kalman filter is used to further enhance the accuracy of the estimated position. Simulation and experimental results validate the performance of proposed hybrid technique and improve the accuracy up to 53.64% and 25.58% compared to lateration and fingerprinting approaches, respectively. Fazli Subhan, Halabi Hasbullah, and Khalid Ashraf Copyright © 2013 Fazli Subhan et al. All rights reserved. Time Synchronization and Performance of BeiDou Satellite Clocks in Orbit Thu, 05 Sep 2013 13:34:32 +0000 The time model of Beidou satellite clocks is analyzed. The general relations of satellite clocks with the system time are studied. The error sources of two-way radio time transfer between satellites and uplink stations are analyzed. The uncertainty of type A is about 0.3 ns in Beidou system. All the satellite clocks in orbit of Beidou satellite navigation system are evaluated by the clock offsets observed by the two-way radio time transfer. The frequency stabilities at a sample time of 10000 s and 1 day for all the satellite clocks are better than . It means that the performance of Beidou satellite clocks in orbit is consistent with the ground test, and the results in orbit are a little better than those in ground vacuum. Han Chunhao, Cai Zhiwu, Lin Yuting, Liu Li, Xiao Shenghong, Zhu Lingfeng, and Wang Xianglei Copyright © 2013 Han Chunhao et al. All rights reserved. Navigation Facility for High Accuracy Offline Trajectory and Attitude Estimation in Airborne Applications Thu, 05 Sep 2013 08:30:47 +0000 The paper focuses on a navigation facility, relying on commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology, developed to generate high-accuracy attitude and trajectory measurements in postprocessing. Target performance is cm-level positioning with tenth of degree attitude accuracy. The facility is based on the concept of GPS-aided inertial navigation but comprises carrier-phase differential GPS (CDGPS) processing and attitude estimation based on multiantenna GPS configurations. Expected applications of the system include: (a) performance assessment of integrated navigation systems, developed for general aviation aircraft and medium size unmanned aircraft systems (UAS); (b) generation of reference measurements to evaluate the flight performance of airborne sensors (e.g., radar or laser); and (c) generation of reference trajectory and attitude for improving imaging quality of airborne remote sensing data. The paper describes system architecture, selected algorithms for data processing and integration, and theoretical performance evaluation. Experimental results are also presented confirming the effectiveness of the implemented approach. A. Renga, G. Fasano, D. Accardo, M. Grassi, U. Tancredi, G. Rufino, and A. Simonetti Copyright © 2013 A. Renga et al. All rights reserved. An Intuitive Approach to Inertial Sensor Bias Estimation Tue, 02 Jul 2013 11:13:45 +0000 A simple approach to gyro and accelerometer bias estimation is proposed. It does not involve Kalman filtering or similar formal techniques. Instead, it is based on physical intuition and exploits a duality between gimbaled and strapdown inertial systems. The estimation problem is decoupled into two separate stages. At the first stage, inertial system attitude errors are corrected by means of a feedback from an external aid. In the presence of uncompensated biases, the steady-state feedback rebalances those biases and can be used to estimate them. At the second stage, the desired bias estimates are expressed in a closed form in terms of the feedback signal. The estimator has only three tunable parameters and is easy to implement and use. The tests proved the feasibility of the proposed approach for the estimation of low-cost MEMS inertial sensor biases on a moving land vehicle. Vasiliy M. Tereshkov Copyright © 2013 Vasiliy M. Tereshkov. All rights reserved. GNSS Reliability Testing in Signal-Degraded Scenario Tue, 26 Mar 2013 14:47:43 +0000 Multiconstellation satellite navigation is critical in signal-degraded environments where signals are strongly corrupted. In this case, the use of a single GNSS system does not guarantee an accurate and continuous positioning. A possible approach to solve this problem is the use of multiconstellation receivers that provide additional measurements and allows robust reliability testing; in this work, a GPS/GLONASS combination is considered. In urban scenario, a modification of the classical RAIM technique is necessary taking into account frequent multiple blunders. The FDE schemes analysed are the “Observation Subset Testing,” “Forward-Backward Method,” and “Danish Method”; they are obtained by combining different basic statistical tests. The considered FDE methods are modified to optimize their behaviour in urban scenario. Specifically a preliminary check is implemented to screen out bad geometries. Moreover, a large blunder could cause multiple test failures; hence, a separability index is implemented to avoid the incorrect exclusion of blunder-free measurements. Testing the RAIM algorithms of GPS/GLONASS combination to verify the benefits relative to GPS only case is a main target of this work too. The performance of these methods is compared in terms of RMS and maximum error for the horizontal and vertical components of position and velocity. A. Angrisano, C. Gioia, S. Gaglione, and G. del Core Copyright © 2013 A. Angrisano et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of Different Sensor Configurations for Collaborative Driving in Urban Environments Sun, 10 Mar 2013 10:52:09 +0000 Vehicle-to-vehicle relative navigation of a network of vehicles travelling in an urban canyon is assessed using least-squares and Kalman filtering covariance simulation techniques. Between-vehicle differential GPS is compared with differential GPS augmented with between-vehicle ultrawideband range and bearing measurements. The three measurement types are combined using both least-squares and Kalman filtering to estimate the horizontal positions of a network of vehicles travelling in the same direction on a road in a simulated urban canyon. The number of vehicles participating in the network is varied between two and nine while the severity of the urban canyon was varied from 15-to 65-degree elevation mask angles. The effect of each vehicle’s azimuth being known a priori, or unknown is assessed. The resulting relative positions in the network of vehicles are then analysed in terms of horizontal accuracy and statistical reliability of the solution. The addition of both range and bearing measurements provides protection levels on the order of 2 m at almost all times where DGPS alone only rarely has observation redundancy and often exhibits estimated accuracies worse than 200 m. Reliability is further improved when the vehicle azimuth is assumed to be known a priori. Mark G. Petovello, Kyle O'Keefe, Phil Wei, and Chaminda Basnayake Copyright © 2013 Mark G. Petovello et al. All rights reserved. INS Assisted Fuzzy Tracking Loop for GPS-Guided Missiles and Vehicular Applications Wed, 27 Feb 2013 15:32:37 +0000 Autonomous Navigation Systems used in missiles and other high dynamic platforms are mostly dependent on the Global Positioning System (GPS). GPS users face limitations in terms of missile high dynamics and signal interference. Receiver’s tracking loops bandwidth requirements to avoid these problems are conflicting. The paper presents a novel signal frequency and phase tracking algorithm for very high dynamic conditions, which mitigates the conflicting choice of bandwidths and reduces tracking loop measurement noise. It exploits the flexibility of fuzzy control systems for directly generating the required Numerically Controlled Oscillator (NCO) tuning frequency using phase and frequency discriminators information and is labeled Fuzzy Frequency Phase Lock Loop (FFPLL). Because Fuzzy Systems can be computationally demanding and an Inertial Navigation System (INS) is often onboard the vehicle, an assisted INS Doppler version has been designed and is also proposed. Assessment of the new GPS tracking method is performed with both simulated and experimental data under jamming conditions. The main enhancements of the proposed system consist in reduced processing time, improved tracking continuity and faster reacquisition time. Ahmed M. Kamel, Valerie Renaudin, John Nielsen, and Gérard Lachapelle Copyright © 2013 Ahmed M. Kamel et al. All rights reserved. Human-Induced Effects on RSS Ranging Measurements for Cooperative Positioning Mon, 19 Nov 2012 14:37:44 +0000 We present experimental evaluations of human-induced perturbations on received-signal-strength-(RSS-) based ranging measurements for cooperative mobile positioning. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to gain insight and understand the impact of both body loss and hand grip on the RSS for enhancing proximity measurements among neighbouring devices in cooperative scenarios. Our main contribution is represented by experimental investigations. Analysis of the errors introduced in the distance estimation using path-loss-based methods has been carried out. Moreover, the exploitation of human-induced perturbations for enhancing the final positioning accuracy through cooperative schemes has been assessed. It has been proved that the effect of cooperation is very limited if human factors are not taken into account when performing experimental activities. Francescantonio Della Rosa, Mauro Pelosi, and Jari Nurmi Copyright © 2012 Francescantonio Della Rosa et al. All rights reserved.