International Journal of Oceanography The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Observations of Unexpected Short-Term Heating in the Uppermost Layer of the Dead Sea after a Sharp Decrease in Solar Radiation Thu, 25 May 2017 06:43:44 +0000 The Dead Sea is one of the saltiest bodies of water in the world. Observational evidence has been obtained of unexpected short-term water heating in the 2 m uppermost layer of this hypersaline lake, following a sharp drop in solar radiation under weak winds. This was carried out using Dead Sea buoy measurements. Passing frontal cloudiness mixed with significant dust pollution over the Judean Mountains and the Dead Sea, which occurred on March 22, 2013, led to a dramatic drop in noon solar radiation from 860 W m−2 to 50 W m−2. This drop in solar radiation caused a short-term (1-hour) pronounced temperature rise in the uppermost layer of the sea down to 2 m depth. After the sharp drop in noon solar radiation, in the absence of water mixing, buoy measurements showed that the temperature rise in the uppermost layer of the Dead Sea took place for a shorter time and was more pronounced than the temperature rise under the regular diurnal solar cycle. The water heating could be explained by gravitational instability in the skin-surface layer, when the warm surface water with the increased salinity and density submerged, thereby increasing temperature in the layers below. Pavel Kishcha, Boris Starobinets, Isaac Gertman, Tal Ozer, and Pinhas Alpert Copyright © 2017 Pavel Kishcha et al. All rights reserved. Evidence of Sperm Storage in Nursehound (Scyliorhinus stellaris, Linnaeus 1758): Juveniles Husbandry and Tagging Program Mon, 15 Aug 2016 15:58:47 +0000 Nursehound, Scyliorhinus stellaris (Linnaeus 1758), is a shark of the Scyliorhinidae family, close to the Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus 1758), frequently hosted in public aquaria. Information on biology and ecology is deficiently available regarding this species of sharks. In the Mediterranean basin, they are occasional rare and vulnerable species (Serena, 2005). In 2003 a female specimen of Scyliorhinus stellaris, 90 cm long, fished in the Tyrrhenian Sea was transferred to Tuscany Argentario Mediterranean Aquarium and placed in a 20.000 L tank. The female laid 42 eggs and juveniles were born on 2004 and 2005. They were transferred to the aquarium laboratory in order to get standard protocol for correct juveniles husbandry. After a total of 18-month observations, some of them were tagged and let free on 2006. To collect data about nursehound shark needs in terms of feeding and growing in captivity, especially during the first life years, is a necessary and fundamental step in order to develop a Mediterranean program of tagging and study in the field of conservation policy proposal. Husbandry protocol for this species’ juveniles was developed in this study. This is the first reported case of a nursehound storing sperm for 2 years, in captivity (Pratt, 1993; Hamlett et al., 2002; Awruch, 2007). Primo Micarelli, Emilio Sperone, Fabrizio Serena, and Leonard J. V. Compagno Copyright © 2016 Primo Micarelli et al. All rights reserved. First Record of the Pink Lipped Moray Eel, Echidna rhodochilus (Bleeker 1863) (Family: Muraenidae), from Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India Thu, 04 Aug 2016 13:54:11 +0000 The paper is the first record of the occurrence of the Pink Lipped Moray Eel, Echidna rhodochilus (Bleeker 1863), from India. The current specimen was caught from the mangrove creeks of Carbyn’s Cove, South Andaman. This species is known so far from Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean up to Australia and Indonesia. The present study indicates that there are more studies to be conducted on the ichthyofauna of these islands for a better understanding of the biodiversity of this area. M. Arun Kumar, S. Venu, and G. Padmavati Copyright © 2016 M. Arun Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Island Modeling Using Unstructured Grid during a Tropical Storm Mon, 15 Feb 2016 08:36:06 +0000 The coastal wave dynamics of Agatti island situated on a coral atoll in Lakshadweep, India, having a notable topographic feature of steeper eastern shore over the western shore, is analysed in this study. A multinested model setup is generated using the global third-generation models WAM (Wave Modeling) and SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore). A high resolution unstructured grid is generated for the domain containing the island using SMS (Surface-Water Modeling System) interpolated with merged GEBCO (General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans) and SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) bathymetry. The SWAN model is integrated with a fine resolution of one minute by one minute during the tropical storm 01A (05–10 June 2004) which passed near the island. Model simulated significant wave height data when validated against satellite observations exhibited high accuracy. SWH (significant wave height) is observed to be greater for the west coast than that over the east coast of the island due to steeper eastern shore and there is widespread wave energy dissipation along the southwest direction of wave propagation during normal conditions. The one-dimensional energy density spectra generated during the storm period exhibit multimodality with structured and unstructured grids. Mourani Sinha, Ravi Kumar Yadav, and Paromita Chakraborty Copyright © 2016 Mourani Sinha et al. All rights reserved. Simulation of Sediment Discharges during an Outfall Dredging Operation Mon, 08 Feb 2016 08:09:40 +0000 CORMIX-GTS simulations are carried out to study suspended muddy sediment plumes following the discharge of the spoils taken from the seabed during a marine outfall pipeline dredging operation. Single port discharges are considered at three different locations at 400 m, 800 m, and 1200 m from the shoreline with water depths ranging from 3.5 m to 10.5 m. For discharges in the shallow near-shore region at 400 m offshore, most of the dredge materials are deposited at the seabed and the simulated suspended sediment plumes are found to be carrying a concentration of less than 1 kg/m3 of mainly fine silt and clay. For discharges in the deeper far-shore region at 1200 m offshore, the sediment plumes are more elongated and carrying a concentration of more than 3 kg/m3. Iterative simulations are also conducted to analyse the inherent uncertainty in the input data by varying the ambient velocity and the port’s horizontal angle of discharge. Anton Purnama, Mahad S. Baawain, and Dongdong Shao Copyright © 2016 Anton Purnama et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Noise and Absorption on High Frequency Measurements of Acoustic-Backscatter from Fish Sun, 01 Nov 2015 14:00:28 +0000 Quantitative echosounders operating at multiple frequencies (e.g., 18, 38, 70, 120, 200, 333, and 710 kHz) are often used to observe fish and zooplankton and identify their species. At frequencies above 100 kHz, the absorption attenuation increases rapidly and decreases the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Also, incomplete compensation for the attenuation may result in measurement error. This paper addresses the effects of the attenuation and noise on high frequency measurements of acoustic backscatter from fish. It is shown that measurements of a fish with target strength of −40 dB at 200 m depth are limited by SNR to frequencies up to about 100 kHz. Above 100 kHz, absorption coefficients must be matched to local environmental conditions. Masahiko Furusawa Copyright © 2015 Masahiko Furusawa. All rights reserved. Spatial Distribution of Selected Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments of the EEZ of the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia Mon, 25 May 2015 13:44:07 +0000 Spatial distribution of selected metals (Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Co) in surface sediments in the EEZ of the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia was investigated. The aim of this paper is to determine the distribution pattern and pollution status of heavy metals in tropical shelf sediments since limited information is available. Heavy metal concentrations ranged between 207.58 and 491.33 µg·g−1 for Mn, 36.13 and 125.93 µg·g−1 for Zn, 14.49 and 22.33 µg·g−1 for Cu, 2.00 and 11.12 µg·g−1 for Co, 6.20 and 8.95% for Fe, and 0.94 and 6.62% for Al. The mean concentrations of heavy metals are in decreasing order as follows: Fe > Al > Mn > Zn > Cu > Co. Most metals registered low concentrations at the nearshore areas. Pearson correlation indicates that most of the metals are derived from the miscellaneous sources. Based on the EFs and Igeo, it is implied that the surface sediment trace metal levels in the study area might be enriched by anthropogenic sources. However, the PLI suggests that this area is not contaminated from the measured heavy metals. This work is important to register the current levels of metals so that any change in concentration can be monitored and managed. Hasrizal Shaari, Siti Nurul Hidayu Mohamad Azmi, Khawar Sultan, Joseph Bidai, and Yuzwan Mohamad Copyright © 2015 Hasrizal Shaari et al. All rights reserved. Relating Ctenophore Population to Water Mass Indices in the Northeast U.S. Continental Shelf Ecosystem Wed, 04 Mar 2015 13:13:57 +0000 Ctenophores exist throughout the Northeast U.S. Continental Shelf Ecosystem, but the underlying mechanisms that control ctenophore populations at this scale are not clear. Ctenophore population data over the last 30 years coincides with changes in several water masses on the shelf, but discovering which water mass was most influential was problematic without mechanistic clarity. This paper strives to identify the relationship between oceanography and ctenophore populations over the last 30 years. Using a numerical modeling approach, we found a strong relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation index, percent Labrador Subarctic Slope Water, and ctenophore population. We suggest these results might inform future efforts to develop a predictive capability for major changes in ctenophore population. Rebecca Sparks, Michael Ford, and David Abrahamson Copyright © 2015 Rebecca Sparks et al. All rights reserved. Relation between Upwelling Intensity and the Variability of Physical and Chemical Parameters in the Southern Benguela Upwelling System Sun, 08 Feb 2015 14:16:09 +0000 The extent to which wind-driven seasonal upwelling cycles manifest in surface ocean temperature and nutrient variability along a monitoring line in the Southern Benguela upwelling system was investigated. Monitoring conducted monthly over a six-year period shows that surface temperature and nutrient concentrations exhibit very poor seasonality and weak correlation with the upwelling index. This is, despite clear evidence for spatial inshore-offshore gradients in temperature, nutrients, and chlorophyll, consistent with an upwelling regime. The upper ocean temperature gradient shows a much better correspondence to the upwelling index but at the same time demonstrates that surface heating, and not vertical mixing related to upwelling, controls the upper ocean temperature gradient. The results suggest that remote sensing techniques would be inadequate tools to monitor upwelling events in the Southern Benguela. Also, the incidence of phytoplankton blooms is more likely triggered by stratified conditions associated with surface heating than relaxation of upwelling winds. Hassan Ebrahiem Ismail, Johannes Jacobus Agenbag, Stephanie de Villiers, and Bhekumusa Jabulani Ximba Copyright © 2015 Hassan Ebrahiem Ismail et al. All rights reserved. Influence of El Niño Wind Stress Anomalies on South Brazil Bight Ocean Volume Transports Tue, 03 Feb 2015 13:31:27 +0000 The knowledge of wind stress variability could represent an important contribution to understand the variability over upper layer ocean volume transports. The South Brazilian Bight (SBB) circulation had been studied by numerous researchers who predominantly attempted to estimate its meridional volume transport. The main objective and contribution of this study is to identify and quantify possible interannual variability in the ocean volume transport in the SBB induced by the sea surface wind stress field. A low resolution ocean global circulation model was implemented to investigate the volume transport variability. The results obtained indicate the occurrence of interannual variability in meridional ocean volume transports along three different zonal sections. These results also indicate the influence of a wind driven large-scale atmospheric process that alters locally the SBB and near-offshore region wind stress field and consequently causes interannual variability in the upper layer ocean volume transports. A strengthening of the southward flow in 25°S and 30°S was observed. The deep layer ocean volume transport in the three monitored sections indicates a potential dominance of other remote ocean processes. A small time lag between the integrated meridional volume transports changes in each monitored zonal section was observed. Luiz Paulo de Freitas Assad, Carina Stefoni Böck, Rogerio Neder Candella, and Luiz Landau Copyright © 2015 Luiz Paulo de Freitas Assad et al. All rights reserved. Bio-Optical Characteristics of the Northern Gulf of California during June 2008 Sun, 07 Dec 2014 08:30:05 +0000 Bio-optical variables in the Northern Gulf of California were analyzed using in situ and satellite data obtained during a cruise in June 2008. The study area was divided into three bio-optical regions: Upper Gulf (UG), Northern Gulf (NG), and Great Isles (GI). Each region was characterized according to phytoplankton pigment concentration, phytoplankton and nonpigmented material spectral absorption coefficients, and spectral reflectance. Observed patterns were an indication of the shift in bio-optical conditions from north to south going from turbid and eutrophic waters to mesotrophic ones. Although there was a good agreement between satellite and in situ Chla (RMSE ±33%), an overestimation of in situ Chla was observed. This was partly explained by the presence of nonalgal particles, as well as the influence of desert and continental aerosols, which is generally overcorrected in the standard processing. The UG and NG could be considered as Case  2 waters, but they did exhibit different bio-optical characteristics. This implies that both biological and optical properties should be invoked to better understand water reflectance variability in the study region and its implications for the remote sensing of Chla and biogeochemical processes. Martha Bastidas-Salamanca, Adriana Gonzalez-Silvera, Roberto Millán-Núñez, Eduardo Santamaria-del-Angel, and Robert Frouin Copyright © 2014 Martha Bastidas-Salamanca et al. All rights reserved. Walking Behavior Observed in Phoxichilidium femoratum (Rathke, 1799) and Nymphon brevirostre Hodge 1863 Collected from Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea, Russia Tue, 18 Nov 2014 07:00:11 +0000 In this study, the walking behavior of Phoxichilidium femoratum and Nymphon brevirostre was investigated using video recordings. The walking behavior of P. femoratum while walking over the colonial hydroids that they normally feed on and on relatively smooth glass surfaces was observed. In the case of N. brevirostre, only walking on smooth glass was observed. The movement of the legs while waking does not display a metachronal pattern like that observed in the true spiders. As the animals move, the walking legs on the leading side of the animal are used to pull the animal forward while those on the trailing side make little or no contribution to the motion of the animal. The promoter/remoter motions of the coxa 1-coxa 2 joint of the walking legs are involved in azimuthal changes in the body’s orientation, but not in paraxial locomotion. The extension of the tarsus and propodus segments appears to occur as a result of hydrodynamic drag when the legs are being flexed and/or pressed against a solid substrate. John A. Fornshell Copyright © 2014 John A. Fornshell. All rights reserved. Sediment Chemistry and Meiofauna from the Northern Gulf of Mexico Continental Shelf Wed, 01 Oct 2014 14:21:50 +0000 This study examined sediment chemistry, granulometry, and meiofauna on the northern Gulf of Mexico continental shelf from central Louisiana to Apalachicola, Florida. Sediment samples were collected in October/November 2012 with a Shipek grab sampler from 26 locations (extending from 28°18′46.079′′N, 91°10′44.471′′W to 29°3′48.383′′N, 85°28′25.679′′W) at depths ranging from 49 to 361 m. Sediment analysis revealed two distinct profiles to the east and west of the Mississippi River Delta at approximately 88°30′W. The concentrations of silt + clay, organic carbon, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn were higher in western sites and positively correlated with Al concentrations. Eastern sites contained sandier sediments with lower organic carbon concentrations and higher Sr and Ca concentrations. Nematode densities were higher at western sites and positively correlated with Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn, silt + clay, and organic carbon concentrations. Copepod densities correlated with very coarse + coarse sand, exhibiting higher densities at eastern sites. PAH concentrations were relatively low, with all sites having <1700 µg/kg total PAHs. This study has revealed two distinct sediment profiles in the eastern and western zones of the study, which appear to influence the nematode and copepod densities. Ceil C. Martinec, Jonathan M. Miller, Nathan K. Barron, Rui Tao, Kewei Yu, Paul M. Stewart, Alfred C. Nichols, David A. Steffy, and Stephen C. Landers Copyright © 2014 Ceil C. Martinec et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Modeling of Irregular Water Wave Transformation Tue, 12 Aug 2014 10:59:28 +0000 Propagation of irregular water wave from deep water to a shoreline has been numerically modeled. Linear and irregular waves are considered. Model equations govern effects of shoaling, refraction, and diffraction over a varying bathymetry. The model requires the input of the incoming directional random sea at the offshore boundary. Statistical energy dissipation model is incorporated to predict realistically energy losses due to wave breaking in surf zone. Unlike most of the previous models, this model can predict wave transformation in surf zone where energy dissipation and bottom friction must be taken into consideration. The model does not have the limitation of parabolic approximation models (PAM) that are valid only in case of weak refraction. Finite difference approximations have been used to solve the governing equation. The model results are compared with experimental data for directional random wave propagation over a submerged shoal. Good agreements between the model results and experimental data are shown. Applicability of the model to real coastal areas is shown by application to coastal areas along the Nile Delta Coast, Egypt. K. M. Fassieh, O. Fahmy, and M. A. Zaki Copyright © 2014 K. M. Fassieh et al. All rights reserved. Environmental Forcing of Red Tides in the Southern Benguela Mon, 16 Jun 2014 08:11:21 +0000 The Southern Benguela cape upwelling plumes have inshore wind shadows prone to red tides in late summer. Their intensity and coverage are estimated by satellite fluorescence measurements in the period 1997–2012 and qualified by in situ reports. High satellite fluorescence cases are identified at daily to seasonal time scales, and characteristics of the upper ocean and lower atmosphere are studied using third generation reanalyses. A dominant feature is easterly winds over the Cape Peninsula (34°S, 18°E) induced by a ridging anticyclone-coastal low weather pattern. Over Cape Columbine (33°S), there is a wind shadow with cyclonic wind and current shear. Composite atmospheric profiles reveal a 4°C temperature inversion near 500 m that traps a coastal wind jet >6 m/s below 200 m. The composite shelf oceanography shows a relic upwelling plume below 10 m overtopped by warmer water near the coast, providing the thermal stratification needed for biotic aggregation. Data from the IPSL5 coupled climate model over the period 1980–2080 indicates that environmental conditions favoring red tides may become more frequent. Mark R. Jury Copyright © 2014 Mark R. Jury. All rights reserved. Nonlinear Evolution Equations for Broader Bandwidth Wave Packets in Crossing Sea States Mon, 09 Jun 2014 09:02:44 +0000 Two coupled nonlinear equations are derived describing the evolution of two broader bandwidth surface gravity wave packets propagating in two different directions in deep water. The equations, being derived for broader bandwidth wave packets, are applicable to more realistic ocean wave spectra in crossing sea states. The two coupled evolution equations derived here have been used to investigate the instability of two uniform wave trains propagating in two different directions. We have shown in figures the behaviour of the growth rate of instability of these uniform wave trains for unidirectional as well as for bidirectional perturbations. The figures drawn here confirm the fact that modulational instability in crossing sea states with broader bandwidth wave packets can lead to the formation of freak waves. S. Debsarma, S. Senapati, and K. P. Das Copyright © 2014 S. Debsarma et al. All rights reserved. Microwave Emission and Scattering from Ocean Surface Waves in the Southern Beaufort Sea Mon, 10 Mar 2014 11:29:31 +0000 Estimates of the relationships between geophysical variables and microwave backscatter/emission are important for the evaluation of atmosphere-ocean interaction, as well as energy, and mass transfer across this interface. We evaluate ship-based passive microwave brightness temperatures at 37 and 89 GHz and active polarimetric backscatter at 5.5 GHz (C-band), as these relate to buoy-derived ocean wave parameters for distinct wave regimes in the southern Beaufort Sea. Microwave emission and backscatter are shown to be sensitive to the ocean surface physical roughness as defined by the significant wave height , compared to wind speed. The shows significant correlation with , with the strongest correlation for the H-polarization channel at 37 and 89 GHz. Active co- and cross- polarization ratios at 40° incidence angle are associated with , with the increase proportional to . The polarimetric coherence parameter at 20° also shows an inverse relationship with because of an expected decorrelation of complex returns with greater surface roughness. Mukesh Gupta, Randall K. Scharien, and David G. Barber Copyright © 2014 Mukesh Gupta et al. All rights reserved. Ocean Circulation and Water Mass Characteristics around the Galápagos Archipelago Simulated by a Multiscale Nested Ocean Circulation Model Tue, 11 Feb 2014 06:11:41 +0000 Ocean circulation and water mass characteristics around the Galápagos Archipelago are studied using a four-level nested-domain ocean system (HYCOM). The model sensitivity to atmospheric forcing frequency and spatial resolution is examined. Results show, that with prescribed atmospheric forcing, HYCOM can generally simulate the major El Niño events especially the strong 1997-1998 events. Waters surrounding the archipelago show a large range of temperature and salinity in association with four different current systems. West zones of Isabella and Fernandina Islands are the largest upwelling zones, resulting from the collision of the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) with the islands, bringing relatively colder, salty waters to the surface and marking the location of the highest biological production. Model results, which agree well with observations, show a seasonal cycle in the transport of the EUC, reaching a maximum during the late spring/early summer and minimum in the late fall. The far northern region is characterized by warmer, fresher water with the greatest mixed layer depth as a result of Panama Current waters entering from the northeast. Water masses over the remainder of the region result from mixing of cool Peru Current waters and upwelled Cold Tongue waters entering from the east. Yanyun Liu, Lian Xie, John M. Morrison, Dan Kamykowski, and William V. Sweet Copyright © 2014 Yanyun Liu et al. All rights reserved. Noisy Reverberation Suppression Using AdaBoost Based EMD in Underwater Scenario Tue, 04 Feb 2014 07:24:09 +0000 Reverberation suppression is a crucial problem in sonar communications. If the acoustic signal is radiated in the water as medium then the degradation is caused due to the reflection coming from surface, bottom, and volume of water. This paper presents a novel signal processing scheme that offers an improved solution in reducing the effect of interference caused due to reverberation. It is based on the combination of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and adaptive boosting (AdaBoost) techniques. AdaBoost based EMD filtering technique is used for reverberation corrupted chirp signal to decrease the noisy components present in the received signal. An improvement in the probability of detection is achieved using the proposed algorithm. The simulation results are obtained for various reverberation times at various SNR levels. Kusma Kumari Cheepurupalli and Raja Rajeswari Konduri Copyright © 2014 Kusma Kumari Cheepurupalli and Raja Rajeswari Konduri. All rights reserved. Bounds on Biomass Estimates and Energetic Consequences of Ctenophora in the Northeast U.S. Shelf Ecosystem Wed, 29 Jan 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Previous descriptions have noted that the stomach samples of spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias, showed a major increase in the overall occurrence and hence implied abundance of Ctenophora. This apparent and persistent gelatinous zooplankton outbreak is increasingly more common in the world’s oceans. We briefly explore the energetic ramifications of ctenophores in the spiny dogfish diet, inferring that the presence of gelatinous zooplankton represents an ambient feeding strategy. Relative to other prey, ctenophores are not a high energy density prey item. However, given varying assumptions of the amount of ctenophores consumed, they may be an important staple in the diet of spiny dogfish. We also examine the utility of using spiny dogfish as a gelatinous zooplankton sampling device. Using five calculation methodologies, we provide bounds on potential abundance and biomass estimates of ctenophores in the Northeast U.S. shelf ecosystem. We then contextualize these findings relative to the implications for the Northeast U.S. and any large marine ecosystem. Michael D. Ford and Jason S. Link Copyright © 2014 Michael D. Ford and Jason S. Link. All rights reserved. Ecology of Interstitial Faunal Assemblage from the Beaches along the Coast of Kerala, India Thu, 23 Jan 2014 07:30:44 +0000 A quantitative and qualitative study of interstitial fauna and environmental variables was carried out on five selected sandy beaches of the west coast of India. Species of nine interstitial taxa abound the beaches. Nematodes, harpacticoid copepods, turbellarians, and polychaetes constituted the bulk of the population. The available energy in the beaches ranged from 0.2245 to 16.08 joules/mg and the grain size varied from 0.93 to 2.88. Organic matter correlated significantly with coarse sand (Pearson correlation ; ). Organic carbon, particle size, and dissolved oxygen determined the abundance and distribution of interstitial fauna as per multivariate BIOENV analysis. Shannon Wiener diversity index was maximum at Cherai (2.027) and minimum at Sakthikulangara (1.144) beach. The value of nematode/copepod ratio (/) indicated at Sakthikulangara beach validates the increased sensitivity of harpacticoids to environmental stress. Geetha Priyalakshmi and N. R. Menon Copyright © 2014 Geetha Priyalakshmi and N. R. Menon. All rights reserved. Intermonsoon Variation of Physical Characteristics and Current Circulation along the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia Tue, 21 Jan 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Data from eight cruises spanning from 2002 to 2007 are used to investigate the seasonal changes in water characteristics and current circulation in southern South China Sea along the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The surveys were made during two intermonsoon periods which are during March/April and September/October. In addition, monthly sea surface temperature from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is used to provide wider coverage of spatial and temporal for seasonality study. Overall, the area shares different physical properties between the two seasons. During September/October temperature is lower and salinity is higher compared to the data during Mac/April/May. The current along the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia also shows seasonality, with dominant current flow southward during Mac/April and northward during September/October. Mohd Fadzil Mohd Akhir, Nur Zurairah Zakaria, and Fredolin Tangang Copyright © 2014 Mohd Fadzil Mohd Akhir et al. All rights reserved. Modulation in Ocean Primary Production due to Variability of Photosynthetically Available Radiation under Different Atmospheric Conditions Sun, 05 Jan 2014 12:48:36 +0000 The rate of photosynthesis primarily depends on nutrients and photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) at sea surface. Several ship cruises were carried out to measure optical, biological, and atmospheric parameters in the Arabian Sea and their variability were studied. An analytical nonspectral photosynthesis-irradiance model was used to estimate euphotic primary production (EuPP) to study its variability during cruise periods. PAR was estimated using COART model using in situ measured aerosol optical depth (AOD) to compare with in situ measured PAR. In order to understand the variability of PAR under different types of aerosol and different aerosol loading, a simulation study was carried out using COART model. EuPP was estimated for various PAR values under different aerosol loading and cloud coverage conditions. Sensitivity analysis showed that for maritime, maritime polluted, and desert aerosols, the ratio PAR/PAR0AOD has attenuated to about 11–25%, whereas it has attenuated to 44% for urban aerosol type. PAR/PARclear  sky was reduced by ~57% for high aerosol loading and for overcast sky. The decrease in EuPP under various aerosol loading and cloud coverage was observed to depend on the photoadaptation parameter. EuPP/EuPPclear  sky was reduced by 38% for maximum maritime aerosol loading and for overcast sky. Madhumita Tripathy, Mini Raman, Prakash Chauhan, and Ajai Copyright © 2014 Madhumita Tripathy et al. All rights reserved. Assessing the Continuous Impact of Tributyltin from Antifouling Paints in a Brazilian Mangrove Area Using Intersex in Littoraria angulifera (Lamarck, 1822) as Biomarker Sun, 22 Dec 2013 09:33:54 +0000 Intersex is a sensitive biomarker of TBT exposure and effects in littorinid gastropods and described for the mangrove periwinkle Littoraria angulifera for the first time in this study. The objective was to describe the occurrence of intersex in L. angulifera, to propose the species as a sentinel organism to assess TBT contamination, and to characterize the contamination in mangroves. The study was carried out in 2009 by sampling at 20 stations near harbors and marinas and at a reference station on the coast of Espírito Santo Estate, Brazil. At the reference station, no intersex specimens were found, while at 20 sampling stations 51% of the females exhibited different degrees of intersex development, including the occurrence of functionally sterilized females. The highest incidence of intersex and greatest intersex intensities was found in areas close to marinas and shipyards indicating that vessel-related activities are still the main source of TBT contamination. L. angulifera collected from stations in areas with well-preserved mangroves was larger than specimens collected from other areas. These differences are attributed to environmental quality and not to occurrence of intersex. The results indicate that this region is still affected by TBT contamination and that L. angulifera has the required sensitivity to be used as a bioindicator. M. B. Costa, G. C. Zamprogno, F. C. Pedruzzi, G. B. Dalbem, and M. M. P. Tognella Copyright © 2013 M. B. Costa et al. All rights reserved. Towards Chip-Based Salinity Measurements for Small Submersibles and Biologgers Wed, 27 Nov 2013 08:24:24 +0000 Water’s salinity plays an important role in the environment. It can be determined by measuring conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD). The corresponding sensor systems are commonly large and cumbersome. Here, a 7.5 × 3.5 mm chip, containing microstructured CTD sensor elements, has been developed. On this, 1.5 mm2 gold finger electrodes are used to measure the impedance, and thereby the conductivity of water, in the MHz frequency range. Operation at these frequencies resulted in higher sensitivities than those at sub-MHz frequencies. Up to 14 kΩ per parts per thousand salt concentration was obtained repeatedly for freshwater concentrations. This was three orders of magnitude higher than that obtained for concentrations in and above the brackish range. A platinum electrode is used to determine a set ambient temperature with an accuracy of 0.005°C. Membranes with Nichrome strain gauges responded to a pressure change of 1 bar with a change in resistance of up to 0.21 . A linear fit to data over 7 bars gave a sensitivity of 0.1185 /bar with an of 0.9964. This indicates that the described device can be used in size-limited applications, like miniaturized submersibles, or as a bio-logger on marine animals. Jonas Jonsson, Katarina Smedfors, Leif Nyholm, and Greger Thornell Copyright © 2013 Jonas Jonsson et al. All rights reserved. The Development of SONAR as a Tool in Marine Biological Research in the Twentieth Century Thu, 14 Nov 2013 13:17:16 +0000 The development of acoustic methods for measuring depths and ranges in the ocean environment began in the second decade of the twentieth century. The two world wars and the “Cold War” produced three eras of rapid technological development in the field of acoustic oceanography. By the mid-1920s, researchers had identified echoes from fish, Gadus morhua, in the traces from their echo sounders. The first tank experiments establishing the basics for detection of fish were performed in 1928. Through the 1930s, the use of SONAR as a means of locating schools of fish was developed. The end of World War II was quickly followed by the advent of using SONAR to track and hunt whales in the Southern Ocean and the marketing of commercial fish finding SONARs for use by commercial fisherman. The “deep scattering layer” composed of invertebrates and fish was discovered in the late 1940s on the echo sounder records. SONARs employing high frequencies, broadband, split beam, and multiple frequencies were developed as methods for the detection, quantification and identification of fish and invertebrates. The study of fish behavior has seen some use of passive acoustic techniques. Advancements in computer technology have been important throughout the last four decades of the twentieth century. John A. Fornshell and Alessandra Tesei Copyright © 2013 John A. Fornshell and Alessandra Tesei. All rights reserved. Characterization of the Boreal Summer Upwelling at the Northern Coast of the Gulf of Guinea Based on the PROPAO In Situ Measurements Network and Satellite Data Thu, 12 Sep 2013 12:04:00 +0000 The boreal summer upwelling along the northern coast of the Gulf of Guinea (GG) is characterized using new in situ sea surface temperature (SST) from onset sensor and satellite TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) datasets. This study aims to encourage intensive in situ SST measurements at the northern coast of the Gulf of Guinea. It shows good agreement between daily in situ SST and TMI SST and similar coastal upwelling onset date, end date, and durations calculated using both datasets. Interannual evolution of the onset date at four stations along the northern coast of GG indicates that the upwelling can be initiated at one cape or simultaneously at both the cape of palms and the cape of three points. It can be also initiated eastward towards Cotonou or globally off all the northern coasts of GG. Nonsignificant trend is found on upwelling onset date and end date variability. Moreover, this study shows that SST is significantly warm or cold some years. Ocean conditions during these years are related to known physical processes. Yves K. Kouadio, Sandrine Djakouré, Angora Aman, K. Eugène Ali, Vamara Koné, and Elisée Toualy Copyright © 2013 Yves K. Kouadio et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Tidal Range Variability and Local Morphology on Hydrodynamic Behavior and Salinity Structure in the Caeté River Estuary, North Brazil Sun, 08 Sep 2013 14:00:58 +0000 Tidal influence and local morphology on circulation and salt transport are investigated in the Caeté river estuary, a well-mixed estuary along the north coast of Brazil. Velocity, temperature, and salinity data were collected in three different locations along the estuary’s main channel, over three single, 13 h tidal cycles. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between tidal distortion and salinity by using classical methods of comparison of three cross-channel circulation characteristics, as well as computation of salt flux and vertical mixing. Findings indicate a flood-ebb asymmetry in currents, due to the distinct funneling morphology of the estuary, with shallow marginal areas being dominant towards the estuary head, while both stratification and shear dominate near the estuary mouth. The tidal currents enhanced vertical diffusion in the mid- and lower reaches, explaining the prevailing weakly stratified conditions, while the dominant well-mixed conditions in the upper estuary are a result of a combination of stronger flood currents and negligible vertical saline gradient. The predominant downstream salt transport supports the conclusion that there is little accumulation of salt in the Caeté river estuary. In addition, findings indicate that tidal correlation and Stokes drift are important components in the upper estuary, while tidal correlation played an important role in the middle estuary, with fluvial discharge most important in the lower estuary. Geórgenes H. Cavalcante, David A. Feary, and Björn Kjerfve Copyright © 2013 Geórgenes H. Cavalcante et al. All rights reserved. Occurrence and Distribution of a Diatom-Diazotrophic Cyanobacteria Association during a Trichodesmium Bloom in the Southeastern Arabian Sea Tue, 06 Aug 2013 13:15:33 +0000 Symbiotic diatom-diazotrophic cyanobacteria association (DDA) of Rhizosolenia hebetata and Rhizosolenia formosa with endosymbiotic cyanobacteria Richelia intracellularis was noticed and documented for the first time during a bloom of the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum in the oligotrophic shelf waters along Kochi and Mangalore transects, southeastern Arabian Sea (SEAS), during spring intermonsoon (April 2012). Although the host is frequently seen, the symbiont is rarely reported in the Indian EEZ. The presence of nitrogen-fixing symbiotic association of Rhizosolenia-Richelia along with Trichodesmium erythraeum highlights the significance of DDAs on the nutrient and energy budgets of phytoplankton in the oligotrophic environments of the Arabian Sea during spring intermonsoon. T. Jabir, V. Dhanya, Y. Jesmi, M. P. Prabhakaran, N. Saravanane, G. V. M. Gupta, and A. A. M. Hatha Copyright © 2013 T. Jabir et al. All rights reserved. Occurrence of Nitrogen Fixing Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium under Elevated pCO2 Conditions in the Western Bay of Bengal Mon, 22 Jul 2013 10:38:52 +0000 Recent studies on the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium showed that increasing CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) enhances N2 fixation and growth. We studied the in situ and satellite-derived environmental parameters within and outside a Trichodesmium bloom in the western coastal Bay of Bengal (BoB) during the spring intermonsoon 2009. Here we show that the single most important nitrogen fixer in today’s ocean, Trichodesmium erythraeum, is strongly abundant in high (≥300 μatm) pCO2 concentrations. N : P ratios almost doubled (~10) at high pCO2 region. This could enhance the productivity of N-limited BoB and increase the biological carbon sequestration. We also report presence of an oxygen minimum zone at Thamnapatnam. Earlier studies have been carried out using lab cultures, showing the increase in growth rate of T. erythraeum under elevated pCO2 conditions, but to our knowledge, this study is the first to report that in natural environment also T. erythraeum prefers blooming in high pCO2 concentrations. The observed CO2 sensitivity of T. erythraeum could thereby provide a strong negative feedback to rising atmospheric CO2 but would also drive towards phosphorus limitation in a future high CO2 world. Suhas Shetye, Maruthadu Sudhakar, Babula Jena, and Rahul Mohan Copyright © 2013 Suhas Shetye et al. All rights reserved.