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International Journal of Otolaryngology
Volume 2009, Article ID 745151, 7 pages
Research Article

Analysis of Auditory Measures in Normal Hearing Young Male Adult Cigarette Smokers Using Multiple Variable Selection Methods with Predictive Validation Assessments

1Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203, USA
2Academic Computing Services, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203, USA

Received 12 June 2009; Revised 20 October 2009; Accepted 25 October 2009

Academic Editor: Robert K. Shepherd

Copyright © 2009 Kamakshi V. Gopal et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Studies have shown that cigarette smoking is a risk factor for hearing loss; however, no information is available on auditory preclinical indicators in young chronic cigarette smokers. Cigarette smoking involves exposure to many harmful chemicals including carbon monoxide (CO). In this study, the CO level in 16 young normal hearing male chronic smokers was measured with a CO monitor, and was used as the outcome measure. Subjects were administered a battery of audiological tests that included behavioral and electrophysiologic measures. The goal was to investigate which auditory test measures can be used as potential predictors of the outcome measure. Using ordinary least squares estimation procedures with best-subsets selection and bootstrapped stepwise variable selection procedures, an optimal predictive multiple linear regression model was selected. Results of this approach indicated that auditory brainstem response peak V amplitudes and distortion product otoacoustic emissions had the highest predictive value and accounted for most of the variability.