International Journal of Otolaryngology / 2012 / Article / Fig 4

Review Article

Management of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancer

Figure 4

Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. (a) Anatomy and function can be evaluated at the beginning of the examination. Endogenous secretions retention and even penetration or aspiration at rest suggest sensory impairment. (b) The swallow trial always starts with honey consistency, the easier to manage. Dysfunction is further corroborated as there is immediate penetration. (c) The patient shows evident aspiration. (d) The larynx is extraordinarily dysfunctional from the safety point of view. Obviously the patient has to refrain from oral alimentation.
157630.fig.004a
(a)
157630.fig.004b
(b)
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(c)
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(d)