Table 1: Bacteriology after contact with solution for one minute.

GroupStandardHOClNSAlcoholPVPI
SpeciesNo. of Isolates

Aerobic and facultative bacteria
 Gram-positive
  Coagulase-negative staphylococci1211
  Staphylococcus aureus55525
  Streptococcus pneumoniae11111
  Moraxella catarrhalis1111
  Group G Streptococcus1111
 Gram-negative
  Haemophilus influenzae22222
  Klebsiella pneumoniae44423
  Klebsiella oxytoca111
  Pseudomonas aeruginosa86726
  Pseudomonas putida11
  Enterobacter aerogenes1111
  Citrobacter koseri3233
  Escherichia coli1111
  Stenotrophomonas maltophilia2222
Total aerobic and facultative bacteria322930928
Anaerobic bacteria
 Gram-positive
  Propionibacterium acnes1112
  Peptostreptococcus micra87758
  Peptostreptococcus anaerobius22212
  Clostridium hastiforme1111
 Gram-negative
  Fusobacterium nucleatum33323
Total anaerobic bacteria151314916
Total bacterial isolates4742441844

: the stick was placed directly into a Thanswab tube; HOCl: the stick was placed into a glass tube containing hypochlorous acid solution; NS: normal saline; PVPI: povidone-iodine solution.