Table 2: Bacteriology after contact with solution for five minutes.

GroupStandardHOClNSAlcoholPVPI
SpeciesNumber of isolates

Aerobic and facultative bacteria
 Gram-positive
  Coagulase-negative staphylococci1
  Staphylococcus aureus7863
  Staphylococcus non-aureus1
  Streptococcus pneumoniae1 11
 Gram-negative
  Haemophilus influenzae2232
  Pseudomonas aeruginosa2222
  Pseudomonas stutzeri1
  Citobacter koseri2
  Escherichia coli11
Total aerobic and facultative bacteria15151218
Anaerobic bacteria
 Gram-positive
  Propionibacterium acnes1111
  Peptostreptococcus micra2
  Peptostreptococcus magnus1 1111
 Gram-negative
  Fusobacterium nucleatum2
  Anaerobic Gram-negative bacillus1
Total anaerobic bacteria22217
Total bacterial isolates171714215

: the stick was placed directly into a Thanswab tube; HOCl: the stick was placed into a glass tube containing hypochlorous acid solution; NS: normal saline; PVPI: povidone-iodine solution.