Table 2: Bacteriology after contact with solution for five minutes.

SpeciesNumber of isolates

Aerobic and facultative bacteria
  Coagulase-negative staphylococci1
  Staphylococcus aureus7863
  Staphylococcus non-aureus1
  Streptococcus pneumoniae1 11
  Haemophilus influenzae2232
  Pseudomonas aeruginosa2222
  Pseudomonas stutzeri1
  Citobacter koseri2
  Escherichia coli11
Total aerobic and facultative bacteria15151218
Anaerobic bacteria
  Propionibacterium acnes1111
  Peptostreptococcus micra2
  Peptostreptococcus magnus1 1111
  Fusobacterium nucleatum2
  Anaerobic Gram-negative bacillus1
Total anaerobic bacteria22217
Total bacterial isolates171714215

: the stick was placed directly into a Thanswab tube; HOCl: the stick was placed into a glass tube containing hypochlorous acid solution; NS: normal saline; PVPI: povidone-iodine solution.