International Journal of Otolaryngology https://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Sinonasal Characteristics in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Compared to Healthy Controls Thu, 04 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2017/1935284/ Background. The difference in nasal obstruction between OSA patients and healthy individuals is not adequately documented. Our aim was to describe the sinonasal quality of life and nasal function in OSA patients and healthy controls using the sinonasal outcome test-20 (SNOT-20), nasal obstruction visual analog scale (NO-VAS), and peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF). Methodology and Principal. Ninety-three OSA patients and 92 controls were included in a case-control study from 2010 to 2015. Results. Mean SNOT-20 score in the OSA group was 1.69 (SD 0.84) compared to 0.55 (SD 0.69) in controls (, 95% CI [0.9, 1.4]). The mean NO-VAS score was 41.3 (SD 12.8) and 14.7 (SD 14.4) in the OSA group and controls, respectively, (, 95% CI [22.7, 30.6]). PNIF measured 105 litres/minute in the OSA group and 117 litres/minute in controls (, 95% CI [−21.8, −3.71]). There was a positive correlation between subjective nasal obstruction and change in PNIF after decongestion in the control group alone. Conclusions. OSA patients have a reduced sinonasal QoL and lower peak nasal inspiratory flow compared to controls. Treatment of nasal obstruction in OSA patients should be made a priority along with treatment of the ailment itself. Mads Henrik Strand Moxness, Vegard Bugten, Wenche Moe Thorstensen, and Ståle Nordgård Copyright © 2017 Mads Henrik Strand Moxness et al. All rights reserved. Construct, Face, and Content Validation on Voxel-Man® Simulator for Otologic Surgical Training Wed, 03 May 2017 09:31:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2017/2707690/ Objective. To assess the face, content, and construct validity of the Voxel-Man TempoSurg Virtual Reality simulator. Participants and Methods. 74 ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeons participated. They were assigned to one of two groups according to their level of expertise: the expert group and the novice group . The participants performed four temporal bone dissection tasks on the simulator. Performances were assessed by a global score and then compared to assess the construct validity of the simulator. Finally, the expert group assessed the face and content validity by means of a five-point Likert-type scale. Results. experienced surgeons performed better and faster than the novices. However, the groups did not differ in terms of bone volume removed or number of injuries . 93.7% of experienced surgeons stated they would recommend this simulator for anatomical learning. Most (87.5%) also thought that it could be integrated into surgical training. Conclusion. The Voxel-Man TempoSurg Virtual Reality simulator constitutes an interesting complementary tool to traditional teaching methods for training in otologic surgery. M. Varoquier, C. P. Hoffmann, C. Perrenot, N. Tran, and C. Parietti-Winkler Copyright © 2017 M. Varoquier et al. All rights reserved. Innovative 3D Model of the Human Middle Ear in High Resolution with a Histological Microgrinding Method: A Feasibility Study and Comparison with CT Wed, 03 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2017/6753604/ Conclusion. The development of a histological 3D model of the tympanic cavity visualizes the exact microanatomy of the sound conduction organ and is therefore essential for finite elements simulations and surgical training. Objectives. So far, no accurate histological 3D model of the sound conduction system existed in literature. For 3D reconstruction of the very fine structures inside and outside the auditory ossicles, a method based on histological slices allows a more differential analysis of both hard and soft tissues and could thus be superior to μCT. Method. A complete temporal bone was embedded in epoxy resin and microground in distances of about 34 μm. After photodocumentation of every plane, a 3D reconstruction was performed by using the Computer Aided Design (CAD) program Rhinoceros 5®. For comparison, a μCT of the same specimen resulted in a 3D model of the calcified structures in the middle ear. Results. The histological 3D model gives an excellent overview to all anatomical soft and bony tissues of the human auditory ossicles. Specifically the fine blood vessel system and the exact dimension of cartilage areas inside the ossicles can be illustrated much more precisely than with μCT data. The present technique also allows the evaluation of the fine connecting ligaments inside the tympanic cavity. Susanne Bradel, Laura Doniga-Crivat, Silke Besdo, Franziska Lexow, Michael Fehr, Thomas Lenarz, Nils Prenzler, and Gudrun Brandes Copyright © 2017 Susanne Bradel et al. All rights reserved. Recovery of Abnormal ABR in Neonates and Infants at Risk of Hearing Loss Tue, 04 Apr 2017 08:27:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2017/7912127/ The purpose of this retrospective study is to present the clinical experience of a single institution on the recovery of ABR thresholds in a large population of neonates and infants at risk of hearing loss. Potential prognostic factors associated with this phenomenon were also investigated. Out of 2248 high risk infants, 384 had abnormal ABR at initial hearing evaluation and 168 of them had absent ABR or a threshold ≥80 dBnHL. From this subgroup, a significant percentage showed complete or partial recovery on reexamination (32.7% and 9.3%, resp.), performed 4–6 months later. The presence of normal otoacoustic emissions was associated with the ABR restoration on reexamination. Moreover, the very young age at the initial hearing screening seems to be related to higher probabilities of false positive ABR. The potential recovery of hearing in HR infants raises concerns about the very early cochlear implantation in HR infants less than one year. Such a treatment modality should be decided cautiously and only after obtaining valid and stable objective and subjective hearing thresholds. This holds especially true for infants showing an auditory neuropathy profile, as they presented a much greater probability of ABR recovery. Ioannis Psarommatis, Charalampos Voudouris, Ioannis Kapetanakis, Faselida Athanasiadi, and Konstantinos Douros Copyright © 2017 Ioannis Psarommatis et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of 105 Patients with Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-Inhibitor Induced Angioedema Tue, 14 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2017/1476402/ Objective. To asses a cohort of 105 consecutive patients with angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor induced angioedema with regard to demographics, risk factors, family history of angioedema, hospitalization, airway management, outcome, and use of diagnostic codes used for the condition. Study Design. Cohort study. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study of 105 patients with angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor induced angioedema in the period 1995–2014. Results. The cohort consisted of 67 females and 38 males (F : M ratio 1.8), with a mean age of 63 [range 26–86] years. Female gender was associated with a significantly higher risk of angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor induced angioedema. 6.7% had a positive family history of angioedema. Diabetes seemed to be a protective factor with regard to angioedema. 95% experienced angioedema of the head and neck. 4.7% needed intubation or tracheostomy. 74 admissions took place during the study period with a total of 143 days spent in the hospital. The diagnosis codes most often used for this condition were “DT783 Quincke’s oedema” and “DT78.4 Allergy unspecified”. Complement C1 inhibitor was normal in all tested patients. Conclusion. Female gender predisposes to angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor induced angioedema, whereas diabetes seems to be a protective factor. Eva Rye Rasmussen, Christian von Buchwald, Mia Wadelius, Sumangali Chandra Prasad, Shailajah Kamaleswaran, Kawa Khaled Ajgeiy, Georg Authried, Kristine Appel U. Pallesen, and Anette Bygum Copyright © 2017 Eva Rye Rasmussen et al. All rights reserved. Reduction of Radiation Dosage in Visualization of Paranasal Sinuses in Daily Routine Tue, 31 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2017/3104736/ Background. Preoperative imaging of the nose and paranasal sinus is standard in otorhinolaryngology. Previous studies on phantoms demonstrated the potential for dose reduction of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) by varying the application parameters. Methodology. Based on previous studies, the standard protocol of paranasal sinus imaging by CBCT was altered. One hundred and fifty examinations using the old protocol (01/2010–01/2011, high dosage) and 150 examinations using the new protocol (09/2012–09/2013, low dosage) were evaluated and compared for the visibility of 17 anatomical structures, the Lund-Mackay Score, and technical parameters. Results. Alteration of the protocol resulted in a significant reduction in dosage (6.64 mGy versus 2.88 mGy). Both groups showed the same amount of pathology (Lund-Mackay Score: versus ; ). There was a significant better visibility of the anatomical structures (all visible = 1, nothing visible = 4) (results: 1.25 versus 1.17; ) in the low-dosage group. Conclusion. Despite a significant reduction in the applied dosage, reliable visualization of the bony anatomy of the anterior skull base is possible by CBCT. This demonstrates the need for the discussion of the required clinical imaging quality. Christian Güldner, Isabell Diogo, Julia Leicht, Magis Mandapathil, Thomas Wilhelm, Afshin Teymoortash, and Evelyn Jahns Copyright © 2017 Christian Güldner et al. All rights reserved. Management of Chyle Leak after Head and Neck Surgery: Review of Current Treatment Strategies Thu, 19 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2017/8362874/ Chyle leak formation is an uncommon but serious sequela of head and neck surgery when the thoracic duct is inadvertently injured, particularly with the resection of malignancy low in the neck. The thoracic duct is the primary structure that returns lymph and chyle from the entire left and right lower half of the body. Chyle extravasation can result in delayed wound healing, dehydration, malnutrition, electrolyte disturbances, and immunosuppression. Prompt identification and treatment of a chyle leak are essential for optimal surgical outcome. In this article we will review the current treatment options for iatrogenic cervical chyle leaks. Sean W. Delaney, Haoran Shi, Alireza Shokrani, and Uttam K. Sinha Copyright © 2017 Sean W. Delaney et al. All rights reserved. Multiport Combined Endoscopic Approach to Nonembolized Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma with Parapharyngeal Extension: An Emerging Concept Thu, 22 Dec 2016 11:44:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2016/4203160/ Background. Surgical approaches to the parapharyngeal space (PPS) are challenging by virtue of deep location and neurovascular content. Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma (JNA) is a formidable hypervascular tumor that involves multiple compartments with increase in size. In tumors with extension to parapharyngeal space, the endonasal approach was observed to be inadequate. Combined Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches and Endoscopic Transoral Surgery (EEA-ETOS) approach has provided a customized alternative of multicorridor approach to access JNA for its safe and efficient resection. Methods. The study demonstrates a case series of patients of JNA with prestyloid parapharyngeal space extension operated by endoscopic endonasal and endoscopic transoral approach for tumor excision. Results. The multiport EEA-ETOS approach was used to provide wide exposure to access JNA in parapharyngeal space. No major complications were observed. No conversion to external approach was required. Postoperative morbidity was low and postoperative scans showed no residual tumor. A one-year follow-up was maintained and there was no evidence of disease recurrence. Conclusion. Although preliminary, our experience demonstrates safety and efficacy of multiport approach in providing access to multiple compartments, facilitating total excision of JNA in selected cases. Tiruchy Narayanan Janakiram, Shilpee Bhatia Sharma, and Vijayshree Nahata Gattani Copyright © 2016 Tiruchy Narayanan Janakiram et al. All rights reserved. “Gauze Technique” in the Treatment of the Fungus Ball of the Maxillary Sinus: A Technique as Simple as It Is Effective Mon, 19 Dec 2016 11:50:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2016/4169523/ Fungus ball of maxillary sinus generally affects immunocompetent and nonatopic subjects. Although endoscopic removal is the current gold standard treatment, removal is at times difficult due to an accumulation of fungal elements in the anterior ad inferior recesses. Aim. To present our experience of maxillary fungus ball treated by the “gauze technique” that avoids these removal difficulties. Materials and Methods. A retrospective, cross-sectional, and descriptive study of 25 patients affected by maxillary fungus ball was carried out: 19 were treated by the “gauze technique” and 6 were treated without “gauze technique.” Results. A comparison was made between the two groups for surgery procedure time, length of hospitalization, time from surgery to nasal unpacking, complications, and postsurgical patient satisfaction. The only statistically significant difference observed was a shorter surgical procedure time () for the “gauze technique.” Conclusions. The data obtained in this study demonstrated that the “gauze technique” is a safe, simple, and quick technique, able to reduce surgery procedure time whilst providing excellent functional outcomes and patient satisfaction. Pietro Garofalo, Alessandro Griffa, Georges Dumas, and Flavio Perottino Copyright © 2016 Pietro Garofalo et al. All rights reserved. Bone-Anchored Titanium Implants in Patients with Auricular Defects: Three Years and 27 Patients’ Experience Wed, 09 Nov 2016 09:37:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2016/9872048/ Different surgical solutions have been proposed for reconstruction of the auricle following loss of the pinna through traumatic injury or neoplastic disease or in patients with congenital defects. Surgical treatment may involve the insertion of an autogenous rib cartilage framework or the use of a porous polymer material inserted into an expanded postauricular flap. Reconstruction with rib cartilage has yielded good results but requires more than one surgical step, and adverse events can occur both at the donor and at the acceptor site; cases of prosthesis rejection have also been described following application of the polymeric prosthesis. The use of a titanium, dowel-retained silicone prosthetic pinna, fixed to the temporal bone, has recently been proposed. This useful surgical approach is indicated particularly after resection of the pinna caused by neoplastic disease or in traumatic auricular injury. Osseointegrated titanium implants used in 27 patients in this study provided them with a safe, reliable, adhesive-free method of anchoring the auricular prostheses. The prostheses allowed recovery of normal physical appearance and all the patients reported that they were completely satisfied with the outcome of the surgical reconstruction. No surgical complications, implant failures, or prosthetic failures were encountered over six months to three years. Emilio Mevio, Luca Facca, Stefano Schettini, and Mauro Mullace Copyright © 2016 Emilio Mevio et al. All rights reserved. Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak in Cochlear Implantation: Enlarged Cochlear versus Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct (Common Cavity Excluded) Wed, 26 Oct 2016 08:48:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2016/6591684/ Objective. To share our experience of cerebrospinal fluid gusher in cochlear implantation in patients with enlarged cochlear or vestibular aqueduct. Study Design. Case series with comparison and a review of the literature. Methods. A retrospective study was performed. Demographic and radiological results of patients with enlarged cochlear aqueduct or enlarged vestibular aqueduct in 278 consecutive cochlear implant recipients, including children and adults, were evaluated between January 2000 and December 2015. Results. Six patients with enlarged cochlear aqueduct and eight patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct were identified. Cerebrospinal fluid gusher occurs in five subjects with enlarged cochlear aqueduct and in only one case of enlarged vestibular aqueduct. Conclusion. Based on these findings, enlarged cochlear aqueduct may be the best risk predictor of cerebrospinal fluid gusher at cochleostomy during cochlear implant surgery despite enlarged vestibular aqueduct. Giovanni Bianchin, Valeria Polizzi, Patrizia Formigoni, Carmela Russo, and Lorenzo Tribi Copyright © 2016 Giovanni Bianchin et al. All rights reserved. Critical Care Admissions following Total Laryngectomy: Is It Time to Change Our Practice? Mon, 26 Sep 2016 06:47:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2016/8107892/ Critical Care Unit (CCU) beds are a limited resource and in increasing demand. Studies have shown that complex head and neck patients can be safely managed on a ward setting given the appropriate staffing and support. This retrospective case series aims to quantify the CCU care received by patients following total laryngectomy (TL) at a District General Hospital (DGH) and compare patient outcomes in an attempt to inform current practice. Data relating to TL were collected over a 5-year period from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2015. A total of 22 patients were included. All patients were admitted to CCU postoperatively for an average length of stay of 25.5 hours. 95% of these patients were admitted to CCU for the purpose of close monitoring only, not requiring any active treatment prior to discharge to the ward. 73% of total complications were encountered after the first 24 hours postoperatively at which point patients had been stepped down to ward care. Avoiding the use of CCU beds and instead providing the appropriate level of care on the ward would result in a potential cost saving of approximately £8,000 with no influence on patient morbidity and mortality. Hussein Walijee, Alexandria Morgan, Bethan Gibson, Sandeep Berry, and Ali Jaffery Copyright © 2016 Hussein Walijee et al. All rights reserved. Flexible Fiber Optic Carbon-Dioxide Laser Assisted Stapedotomy in Otosclerosis Tue, 20 Sep 2016 11:52:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2016/4958074/ Objective. The aim of this study is to analyze the hearing and vestibular outcome of patients with otosclerosis who have been operated on by fiber optic flexible CO2 laser. Study Design. A preliminary and retrospective study was conducted in 30 patients with otosclerosis. Results. Comparative analysis of average air conduction thresholds ( dB versus  dB) and air-bone gaps ( dB versus  dB) before and after the surgery were statistically significant (<0.001). Air-bone gap closed within 10 dB or less in 50% of the cases and within 20 dB or less in 90% of the cases. Average bone conduction threshold after the surgery ( dB) was better than that before the surgery (). However, no statistically significant difference was found (). One patient had tinnitus after surgery. None of the patients had severe sickness or vomiting due to surgery. Eleven patients (36.6%) had very mild nystagmus beating toward the counter-lateral side. All patients were stable at 10 days after surgery. Conclusion. The results indicate that fiber optic flexible CO2 laser provides the surgeon with a very safe and precise surgical instrumentation even in cases with extensive and obliterative otosclerosis. Sertac Yetiser Copyright © 2016 Sertac Yetiser. All rights reserved. Radioactive Merano SPA Treatment for Allergic Rhinitis Therapy Thu, 08 Sep 2016 12:04:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2016/2801913/ Allergic rhinitis is a common nasal disorder with a high impact on quality of life, high social costs in therapies, and a natural development towards asthma. Pharmacological therapy is based on several genres of medications, of which intranasal corticosteroids are currently the most widespread. Thermal water treatment has traditionally been used as adjunctive treatment for chronic rhinitis and sinusitis. The present study was carried out to assess the clinical efficacy of nasal inhalation of radioactive oligomineral water vapours from the Merano hot spring and to compare it with the clinical efficacy of mometasone furoate nasal spray. A comparative prospective study was performed in 90 allergic patients treated at Merano hot springs: a group of 54 subjects treated with radioactive thermal oligomineral water and a control group of 36 subjects treated with mometasone nasal spray. Patients of both groups were assessed before and after treatment by Sino-Nasal Outcome Test questionnaire, active anterior rhinomanometry with flow and resistance monitoring, measurement of mucociliary transport time, and cytological examination of nasal brushing/scraping. The study showed that inhalation treatment with radioactive hydrofluoric thermal water for two weeks produces an objective clinical and cytological improvement in allergic patients, similar to that obtained with mometasone furoate nasal spray. Desiderio Passali, Giacomo Gabelli, Giulio Cesare Passali, Roberto Magnato, Stefan Platzgummer, Lorenzo Salerni, Salvatore Lo Cunsolo, Alexandra Joos, and Luisa Maria Bellussi Copyright © 2016 Desiderio Passali et al. All rights reserved. Do Times until Treatment for Foreign Body Aspiration Relate to Complications? Wed, 17 Aug 2016 17:33:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2016/2831614/ Introduction. Foreign body aspiration is an emergency condition and may be fatal. Delayed diagnosis and treatment may be associated with complications. This study evaluated the association between time until treatment and complications due to foreign body aspiration. Methods. This study was a retrospective study conducted at Khon Kaen University Hospital, Thailand. We enrolled patients diagnosed with foreign body aspiration with evidence of foreign body detected using direct laryngobronchoscopy at any area from the larynx to the bronchus. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the association of times of treatment with complications of foreign body aspiration. Results. During the study period, there were 43 patients that met the study criteria. The most common age group was 0–2 years. Plant seeds were the most common foreign bodies (41.9%), and the right main bronchus was the most common site (16 patients, 37.2%). There were 30 patients (69.8%) that experienced complications from foreign body aspiration. Pneumonia was the most common complication (14 patients, 32.6%). The retention time was not significantly associated with the presence of complications ( value: 0.366). Two patients (4.7%) died due to complete airway obstruction and prolonged hypoxia. Conclusion. Times until treatment were not significantly associated with complications from foreign body aspiration. Walailak Tatsanakanjanakorn and Surapol Suetrong Copyright © 2016 Walailak Tatsanakanjanakorn and Surapol Suetrong. All rights reserved. Tympanometric Findings among Children with Adenoid Hypertrophy in Port Harcourt, Nigeria Tue, 02 Aug 2016 14:29:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2016/1276543/ Introduction. Adenoid hypertrophy (AH) is a common childhood disorder. Adenoid plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of otitis media with effusion (OME). The aim of this study is to critically appraise the tympanometric finding among children with adenoid hypertrophy in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Methodology. A Prospective, controlled study carried out among newly diagnosed cases of adenoid hypertrophy at the ENT clinic of the UPTH, between November 2014 and June 2015. Tympanometry was done on each child and each ear was considerably studied as a single entity. Types B and C tympanograms were used as indicators of OME. Data was collected and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. Sixty-eight cases of adenoid hypertrophy were seen within the study period and 136 ears were studied. Forty (29.4%) ears had type B tympanogram, while 36 (26.5%) ears had type C. The incidence of OME was 55.9%; there were 12 (17.6%) unilateral OME, while bilateral OME was 32 (47.1%). Grade 3 AH was prevalent and was statistically significant with the OME. Conclusion. This study had shown adenoidal hypertrophy as a significant risk factor for OME in children. There was more bilateral OME than unilateral. The more severe grade of AH was more prevalent and it was shown to be statistically significant with OME, thus being a significant risk factor for OME in children. This establishes the need for prompt hearing evaluation and management. Chibuike Nwosu, Mathilda Uju Ibekwe, and Lucky Obukowho Onotai Copyright © 2016 Chibuike Nwosu et al. All rights reserved. Surgical Management of Myringosclerosis over an Entire Perforated Tympanic Membrane by Simple Underlay Myringoplasty Thu, 30 Jun 2016 10:28:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2016/2894932/ The aim of our study is to demonstrate the surgical management of myringosclerosis over a perforated whole tympanic membrane using simple underlay myringoplasty. Simple underlay myringoplasty with fibrin glue was performed in 11 ears with myringosclerosis over the entire tympanic membrane. The patients were one male and ten females and their mean age was 61.8 years (range, 40–73 yr). Surgical success was defined as an intact tympanic membrane 12 months after surgery. Closure of the perforation was successful in 10 (91%) of the 11 patients. Failure of the graft occurred in one patient who then underwent a revision procedure using her stored fascia in the outpatient clinic with a successful outcome. The overall success rate was 100%. Although this study included a small number of cases, removal of myringosclerosis at the edge of a perforation is a beneficial technique for simple underlay myringoplasty in terms of the success rate and postoperative hearing threshold, especially when myringosclerosis extends over the entire tympanic membrane. Masayuki Furukawa, Chieri Hayashi, Osamu Narabayashi, Misato Kasai, Hiroko Okada, Takuo Haruyama, Akira Minekawa, Takashi Iizuka, and Katsuhisa Ikeda Copyright © 2016 Masayuki Furukawa et al. All rights reserved. Predictive Factors for Medical Consultation for Sore Throat in Adults with Recurrent Pharyngotonsillitis Thu, 28 Apr 2016 17:19:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2016/6095689/ Objects. To seek patient- and episode-related factors that associate with medical consultation for acute sore throat because these factors may affect the patient being referred to specialist care and tonsillectomy for recurrent pharyngotonsillitis. Methods. In a secondary analysis of two prior randomised controlled trials, sore throat episodes and medical visits were explored among 156 adult patients referred for tonsillectomy because of recurrent pharyngotonsillitis. Results. The 156 patients (104 females, mean age of 26 years) suffered from 208 acute pharyngotonsillitis episodes during 5-6 months of follow-up. Forty (25%) patients visited a physician, and female gender (adjusted hazard ratio, HR, 3.3; 95% confidence interval 1.4–8.0) and finding of chronically infected tonsils (HR 2.7; 1.2–6.1) were associated with medical consultation. Thirty-six (17%) episodes led to medical consultation during the first 7 days of symptoms. Presence of severe throat pain was related to medical visit (HR 4.3; 1.0–18.5). Conclusions. Even among patients with recurrent pharyngotonsillitis, the acute sore throat episodes were usually mild and only few resulted in medical consultation, with female gender, chronically infected tonsils, and having severe throat pain increasing the consultation rate. T. Koskenkorva, P. Koivunen, and O.-P. Alho Copyright © 2016 T. Koskenkorva et al. All rights reserved. The Reliability of Pharyngeal High Resolution Manometry with Impedance for Derivation of Measures of Swallowing Function in Healthy Volunteers Thu, 14 Apr 2016 11:03:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2016/2718482/ Purpose. We evaluated the intra- and interrater agreement and test-retest reliability of analyst derivation of swallow function variables based on repeated high resolution manometry with impedance measurements. Methods. Five subjects swallowed  mL saline on two occasions one week apart producing a database of 100 swallows. Swallows were repeat-analysed by six observers using software. Swallow variables were indicative of contractility, intrabolus pressure, and flow timing. Results. The average intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for intra- and interrater comparisons of all variable means showed substantial to excellent agreement (intrarater ICC 0.85–1.00; mean interrater ICC 0.77–1.00). Test-retest results were less reliable. ICC for test-retest comparisons ranged from slight to excellent depending on the class of variable. Contractility variables differed most in terms of test-retest reliability. Amongst contractility variables, UES basal pressure showed excellent test-retest agreement (mean ICC 0.94), measures of UES postrelaxation contractile pressure showed moderate to substantial test-retest agreement (mean Interrater ICC 0.47–0.67), and test-retest agreement of pharyngeal contractile pressure ranged from slight to substantial (mean Interrater ICC 0.15–0.61). Conclusions. Test-retest reliability of HRIM measures depends on the class of variable. Measures of bolus distension pressure and flow timing appear to be more test-retest reliable than measures of contractility. Taher I. Omari, Johanna Savilampi, Karmen Kokkinn, Mistyka Schar, Kristin Lamvik, Sebastian Doeltgen, and Charles Cock Copyright © 2016 Taher I. Omari et al. All rights reserved. Nasopharyngeal Tuberculosis: Epidemiology, Mechanism of Infection, Clinical Manifestations, and Management Mon, 29 Feb 2016 09:06:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2016/4817429/ Nasopharyngeal tuberculosis (NPTB) is a noteworthy disease especially in its worldwide spread of the Mycobacterium infection. Although NPTB has been identified in less than one percent of TB cases, recent multiple case reports indicate an either increased awareness or incidence of this disease. The most helpful diagnostic tool is an uncomplicated nasopharyngeal biopsy. However, NPTB is usually ignored because it has varied clinical manifestations and similar presentations with other more common head and neck diseases. Furthermore, the most common presenting symptom is cervical lymphadenopathy mimicking nasopharyngeal carcinoma, a more common and serious disease. Treatment outcomes of NPTB are good in both HIV-positive or HIV-negative patients. In addition, pulmonary tuberculosis association was reported in wide range between 8.3% and 82% which should be considered in a treatment program. In conclusion, early diagnosis and management in NPTB can be achieved by (1) increased awareness of this disease, (2) improvement in knowledge regarding clinical manifestations, and (3) improvement of diagnostic techniques. Chonticha Srivanitchapoom and Pichit Sittitrai Copyright © 2016 Chonticha Srivanitchapoom and Pichit Sittitrai. All rights reserved. Sensorineural Tinnitus: Its Pathology and Probable Therapies Mon, 08 Feb 2016 12:11:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2016/2830157/ Tinnitus is not a single disease but a group of different diseases with different pathologies and therefore different treatments. Regarding tinnitus as a single disease is hampering progress in understanding of the pathophysiology of tinnitus and perhaps, more importantly, it is a serious obstacle in development of effective treatments for tinnitus. Subjective tinnitus is a phantom sound that takes many different forms and has similarities with chronic neuropathic pain. The pathology may be in the cochlea, in the auditory nerve, or, most commonly, in the brain. Like chronic neuropathic pain tinnitus is not life threatening but influences many normal functions such as sleep and the ability to concentrate on work. Some forms of chronic tinnitus have two components, a (phantom) sound and a component that may best be described as suffering or distress. The pathology of these two components may be different and the treatment that is most effective may be different for these two components. The most common form of treatment of tinnitus is pharmacological agents and behavioral treatment combined with sound therapy. Less common treatments are hypnosis and acupuncture. Various forms of neuromodulation are becoming in use in an attempt to reverse maladaptive plastic changes in the brain. Aage R. Møller Copyright © 2016 Aage R. Møller. All rights reserved. Mini Tracheostomy for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: An Evidence Based Proposal Tue, 26 Jan 2016 16:18:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2016/7195349/ Objective. To search for articles evaluating the use of tracheostomies (either permanent stomas or tracheostomy tubes) in adult obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients and to evaluate the potential for the use of mini tracheostomies as treatment for OSA. Study Design. Systematic review. Methods. Nine databases were searched from inception through July 21, 2015. Results. The overall tracheostomy search yielded 516 articles, of which eighteen studies provided polysomnographic data. No study was identified (empty review) for the use of mini tracheostomies for treating OSA. The mini tracheostomy search yielded ninety-five articles which describe findings for either mini tracheostomy kits (inner cannula diameter of 4 mm) or the performance of mini tracheotomies. Six articles described the use of mini tracheostomies as a temporary procedure to relieve acute upper airway obstruction and none described the use for OSA. For tracheostomy stomal sites, suturing the skin directly to the tracheal rings with defatting can minimize stomal site collapse. The smallest tracheostomy stomal size that can successfully treat OSA has not been described. Conclusion. Mini tracheostomies as small as 4 mm have been successfully used in the short term to relieve upper airway obstruction. Given that polysomnography data are lacking, additional research is needed. Macario Camacho, Soroush Zaghi, Edward T. Chang, Sungjin A. Song, Blake Szelestey, and Victor Certal Copyright © 2016 Macario Camacho et al. All rights reserved. Vestibular Disorders after Stapedial Surgery in Patients with Otosclerosis Tue, 19 Jan 2016 14:12:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2016/6830648/ Introduction and Objectives. Vertigo is a described complication of stapedial surgery. Many studies have been conducted to assess the improvement of hearing loss, but there are few studies that assess vestibular function after stapedial surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and characterize the vertigo after stapedial surgery. Methods. We conducted a prospective observational study. Patients undergoing stapedial surgery in our hospital between October 2013 and December 2014 were invited to participate. The vertigo was assessed before and 4 months after surgery, using the Dizziness Handicap Inventory. Results. We included 140 patients in the study. 12 patients (8.6%) reported vertigo before surgery, and all of them denied vertigo after surgery. 36 patients (25.7%) reported vertigo four months after surgery, and none of them had vertigo before surgery. Postoperative total scores in patients with vertigo ranged between 2 and 18 points. Conclusion. The study shows that vestibular disorders may remain after the immediate postoperative period and reinforces the need for clarification of the patient in the informed consent act. Ditza de Vilhena, Inês Gambôa, Delfim Duarte, and Gustavo Lopes Copyright © 2016 Ditza de Vilhena et al. All rights reserved. Inferior Turbinate Size and CPAP Titration Based Treatment Pressures: No Association Found among Patients Who Have Not Had Nasal Surgery Tue, 19 Jan 2016 06:28:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2016/5951273/ Objective. To evaluate the effect of turbinate sizes on the titrated continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapeutic treatment pressures for patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who have not had nasal surgery. Study Design. Retrospective case series. Methods. A chart review was performed for 250 consecutive patients. Results. 45 patients met inclusion criteria. The mean ± standard deviation (M ± SD) for age was years and for body mass index was  kg/m2. The Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient () between CPAP therapeutic treatment pressures and several variables were calculated and were weakly correlated (age , nasal obstruction ), moderately correlated (body mass index and lowest oxygen saturation ), or strongly correlated (apnea-hypopnea index and oxygen desaturation index ()). No statistical significance was found with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) between CPAP therapeutic treatment pressures and inferior turbinate size (right turbinates value = 0.2012, left turbinate value = 0.3064), nasal septal deviation ( value = 0.4979), or mask type ( value = 0.5136). Conclusion. In this study, CPAP titration based therapeutic treatment pressures were not found to be associated with inferior turbinate sizes; however, the CPAP therapeutic treatment pressures were strongly correlated with apnea-hypopnea index and oxygen desaturation index. Macario Camacho, Soroush Zaghi, Daniel Tran, Sungjin A. Song, Edward T. Chang, and Victor Certal Copyright © 2016 Macario Camacho et al. All rights reserved. Elicitation of the Acoustic Change Complex to Long-Duration Speech Stimuli in Four-Month-Old Infants Tue, 22 Dec 2015 06:53:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2015/562030/ The acoustic change complex (ACC) is an auditory-evoked potential elicited to changes within an ongoing stimulus that indicates discrimination at the level of the auditory cortex. Only a few studies to date have attempted to record ACCs in young infants. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the elicitation of ACCs to long-duration speech stimuli in English-learning 4-month-old infants. ACCs were elicited to consonant contrasts made up of two concatenated speech tokens. The stimuli included native dental-dental /dada/ and dental-labial /daba/ contrasts and a nonnative Hindi dental-retroflex /daDa/ contrast. Each consonant-vowel speech token was 410 ms in duration. Slow cortical responses were recorded to the onset of the stimulus and to the acoustic change from /da/ to either /ba/ or /Da/ within the stimulus with significantly prolonged latencies compared with adults. ACCs were reliably elicited for all stimulus conditions with more robust morphology compared with our previous findings using stimuli that were shorter in duration. The P1 amplitudes elicited to the acoustic change in /daba/ and /daDa/ were significantly larger compared to /dada/ supporting that the brain discriminated between the speech tokens. These findings provide further evidence for the use of ACCs as an index of discrimination ability. Ke Heng Chen and Susan A. Small Copyright © 2015 Ke Heng Chen and Susan A. Small. All rights reserved. The Importance of the Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio in Patients with Idiopathic Peripheral Facial Palsy Wed, 02 Dec 2015 12:00:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2015/981950/ Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not there was a correlation between the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) value and the severity of idiopathic peripheral facial palsy (IPFP) and to determine whether or not NLR could be used as an early predictive parameter in the prognosis of IPFP patients. Material and Method. This retrospective study was conducted on 146 patients who were diagnosed with IPFP. The control group comprised 140 patients. Patients with IPFP were categorized according to the House-Brackmann grading system (HBS). The NLR value was obtained by dividing the neutrophil value by the lymphocyte value. Results. In the IPFP group, the mean NLR value was 3.63 ± 2.74 and, in the control group, 1.84 ± 0.78. The mean NLR value was significantly higher in IPFP patients than in the control subjects (). The mean NLR value in group A (Grades I-II ) was 2.61 ± 2.28, in group B (Grades III-IV) 3.22 ± 2.65, and in group C (Grades V-VI) 10.69 ± 6.30. Conclusion. We determined that as the severity of IPFP increased, the NLR value increased. The NLR value can be used as a prognostic factor in the early prediction of IPFP prognosis. M. Mustafa Kiliçkaya, Mustafa Tuz, Murat Yariktaş, Hasan Yasan, Giray Aynalı, and Özkan Bagci Copyright © 2015 M. Mustafa Kiliçkaya et al. All rights reserved. The Correlation of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory with Depression and Anxiety in Veterans with Tinnitus Mon, 30 Nov 2015 14:22:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2015/689375/ Objective. The mechanisms of tinnitus are known to alter neuronal circuits in the brainstem and cortex, which are common to several comorbid conditions. This study examines the relationship between tinnitus and anxiety/depression. Subjects and Methods. Ninety-one male veterans with subjective tinnitus were enrolled in a Veterans Affairs Tinnitus Clinic. The Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) was used to assess tinnitus severity. ICD-9 codes for anxiety/depression were used to determine their prevalence. Pure tone averages (PTA) were used to assess hearing status. Results. Descriptive analyses revealed that 79.1% of the 91 tinnitus sufferers had a diagnosis of anxiety, 59.3% had depression, and 58.2% suffered from both anxiety/depression. Patients with anxiety had elevated total THI scores as compared to patients without anxiety (). Patients with anxiety or depression had significantly increased Functional and Emotional THI scores, but not Catastrophic THI score. Significant positive correlations were illustrated between the degree of tinnitus and anxiety/depression (). There were no differences in PTA among groups. Conclusions. A majority of patients with tinnitus exhibited anxiety and depression. These patients suffered more severe tinnitus than did patients without anxiety and depression. The data support the need for multidisciplinary intervention of veterans with tinnitus. Jinwei Hu, Jane Xu, Matthew Streelman, Helen Xu, and O’neil Guthrie Copyright © 2015 Jinwei Hu et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Sacrificing Tensor Tympani Muscle Tendon When Manubrium of Malleus Is Foreshortened in Type I Tympanoplasty Mon, 30 Nov 2015 14:06:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2015/531296/ The current study aims at observing effects of sacrificing the tensor tympani tendon when manubrium of malleus is foreshortened or retracted on graft uptake, hearing improvement, and occurrence of complications if any during type I tympanoplasty surgery for central perforations. 42 patients were included in group A where the tensor tendon was sectioned and 42 patients were included in group B where the tensor tympani tendon was retained and kept intact. Graft uptake rates are very good in both groups but hearing improvement was found significantly better in group A than group B. No unusual or undesired complications were seen in any of the cases. Sectioning of tensor tympani tendon is safe and effective procedure in cases where manubrium is foreshortened. Sohil Vadiya Copyright © 2015 Sohil Vadiya. All rights reserved. What Are the Trends in Tonsillectomy Techniques in Wales? A Prospective Observational Study of 19,195 Tonsillectomies over a 10-Year Period Thu, 26 Nov 2015 06:51:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2015/747403/ There are a multitude of techniques to undertake tonsillectomy, with hot techniques such as diathermy and coblation being associated with a higher risk of secondary haemorrhage. The UK National Prospective Tonsillectomy Audit (2004) advocated cold steel dissection and ties to be the gold standard. This prospective observational study investigates the trends in tonsillectomy techniques across Wales in the last decade to establish if surgeons have adhered to this national guidance. Data relating to tonsillectomy were extracted over a 10-year period from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2012 from the Wales Surgical Instrument Surveillance Programme database. A total of 19,195 patients were included. Time-series analysis using linear regression showed there was an increase in the number of bipolar diathermy tonsillectomies by 84% (Pearson’s , ) and coblation tonsillectomies by 120% (, ). In contrast, there was a fall in the number of cold steel dissection tonsillectomies with ties by 60% (, ). This observational study suggests that the use of bipolar and coblation techniques for tonsillectomy has increased. This deviation from national guidance may be due to these techniques being faster with less intraoperative bleeding. Further study for the underlying reasons for the increase in these techniques is warranted. Hussein Walijee, Ali Al-Hussaini, Andrew Harris, and David Owens Copyright © 2015 Hussein Walijee et al. All rights reserved. Correlation of Lateral Cephalogram and Flexible Laryngoscopy with Sleep Study in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Tue, 24 Nov 2015 12:57:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2015/127842/ Objective. To study the correlation between lateral cephalogram, flexible laryngoscopy, and sleep study in patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Background. Screening tools should be devised for predicting OSA which could be performed on an outpatient basis. With this aim we studied the skeletal and soft tissue characteristics of proven OSA patients. Methods. A prospective study was performed in patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea by sleep study. They were evaluated clinically and subjected to lateral cephalometry and nasopharyngolaryngoscopy. The findings were matched to see if they corresponded to AHI of sleep study in severity. An attempt was made to see whether the data predicted the patients who would benefit from oral appliance or surgery as the definitive treatment in indicated cases. Results. A retropalatal collapse seen on endoscopy could be equated to the distance from mandibular plane to hyoid (MP-H) of lateral cephalometry and both corresponded to severity of AHI. At the retroglossal region, there was a significant correlation with MP-H, length of the soft palate, and AHI. Conclusion. There is significant correlation of lateral cephalogram and awake flexible nasopharyngolaryngoscopy with AHI in OSA. In unison they form an excellent screening tool for snorers. Anila Narayanan and Bini Faizal Copyright © 2015 Anila Narayanan and Bini Faizal. All rights reserved.