International Journal of Photoenergy

International Journal of Photoenergy / 2006 / Article
Special Issue

Light-harvesting J-aggregates

View this Special Issue

Open Access

Volume 2006 |Article ID 018482 | https://doi.org/10.1155/IJP/2006/18482

Tadaaki Tani, Kazuhiko Seki, Keitaro Yoshihara, Junichi Hanna, "Thin organic layers for photography and electronic devices", International Journal of Photoenergy, vol. 2006, Article ID 018482, 8 pages, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1155/IJP/2006/18482

Thin organic layers for photography and electronic devices

Received30 Mar 2006
Revised31 May 2006
Accepted20 Jun 2006
Published08 Oct 2006

Abstract

The dye sensitization in photography is achieved by thin layers of J-aggregated dyes on silver halide grains. Studies by Yoshihara et al. with picosecond and femtosecond spectroscopies have indicated that the migration of excitons in the dye layers plays important roles in their charge separation to inject electrons into the grains. Studies by Seki et al. with ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy have revealed that the electronic structure of the interface between dye layers and a substrate is characterized by the fact that the vacuum level of the former is lowered with respect to that of the latter by the electric double layer formed at the interface, and that this characteristic structure is generally valid for the interfaces between organic layers and substrates. Hanna et al. have confirmed the formation of such an electronic double layer at the interfaces between a liquid crystalline organic semiconductor and electrodes by analyzing the current voltage characteristics.

References

  1. T. Tani, Photographic Sensitivity; Theory and Mechanisms, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1995. View at: Google Scholar
  2. A. Hagfeldt and M. Grätzel, “Light-induced redox reactions in nanocrystalline systems,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 49–68, 1995. View at: Google Scholar
  3. M. Grätzel, “Photoelectrochemical cells,” Nature, vol. 414, no. 6861, pp. 338–344, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  4. H. W. Vogel, “Uber die lightempfindlichkeit der Bromsilbers for die sogenannten chemisch unwirksamen Farben,” Chemische Berichte, vol. 6, p. 1302, 1873. View at: Google Scholar
  5. T. Tani, T. Suzumoto, and K. Ohzeki, “Energy gap dependence of efficiency of photoinduced electron transfer from cyanine dyes to silver bromide microcrystals in spectral sensitization,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 1298–1301, 1990. View at: Google Scholar
  6. S. Daehne, F. Fink, E. Klose, K. Treuchner, G. Bach, and J. V. Grossmann, “Estimation of the rate constant for spectral sensitization of silver halides by J-aggregates,” J. Signal AM., vol. 6, p. 105, 1978. View at: Google Scholar
  7. D. V. Brumbaugh, A. A. Muenter, W. Knox, and G. Mourou, “Singlet exciton annihilation in the picosecond fluorescence decay of 1, 1-diethyl-2,2-cyanine chloride dye J-aggregate,” Journal of Luminescence, vol. 31-32, part 2, pp. 783–785, 1984. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  8. K. Takahashi, K. Obi, I. Tanaka, and T. Tani, “Picosecond kinetics of spectral sensitization by a J-aggregated dye on AgBr microcrystals,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 154, no. 3, pp. 223–227, 1989. View at: Google Scholar
  9. T. Tani, T. Suzumoto, K. Kemnitz, and K. Yoshihara, “Picosecond kinetics of light-induced electron transfer from J-aggregated cyanine dyes to silver bromide microcrystals: effect of aggregate size,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 96, no. 7, pp. 2778–2783, 1992. View at: Google Scholar
  10. W. West and B. H. Carroll, “Photo-conductivity in photographic systems I. Dye-sensitization of photo-conductivity,” The Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 529–543, 1947. View at: Google Scholar
  11. W. West and B. H. Carroll, “Energy transfer in the photo-sensitization of silver halide photographic emulsions: optical sensitization, supersensitization, and antisensitization,” The Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 417–427, 1951. View at: Google Scholar
  12. J.-W. Oh, S. Kumazaki, I. V. Rubtsov, T. Suzumoto, T. Tani, and K. Yoshihara, “Ultrafast energy transfer in J-aggregate on AgBr microcrystals: its dependence on dye coverage,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 352, no. 5-6, pp. 357–362, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  13. T. Tani, K. Ohzeki, and K. Seki, “Phase selective second harmonic AC voltammetry and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy for evaluation of electronic structures of cyanine dyes,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 138, no. 5, pp. 1411–1415, 1991. View at: Google Scholar
  14. K. Seki, H. Yanagi, Y. Kobayashi, T. Ohta, and T. Tani, “UV photoemission study of dye/AgBr interfaces in relation to spectral sensitization,” Physical Review B, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 2760–2767, 1994. View at: Google Scholar
  15. R. W. Gurney and N. F. Mott, “The theory of the photolysis of silver bromide and the photographic latent image,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, vol. 164, no. 917, pp. 151–167, 1938. View at: Google Scholar
  16. K. Seki, T. Tani, and H. Ishii, “Electronic structures of organic-inorganic interfaces studied by UV photoemission,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 273, no. 1-2, pp. 20–26, 1996. View at: Google Scholar
  17. H. Ishii and K. Seki, “Energy level alignment at organic/metal interfaces studied by UV photoemission: breakdown of traditional assumption of a common vacuum level at the interface,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 1295–1301, 1997. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  18. H. Ishii, K. Sugiyama, D. Yoshimura, E. Ito, Y. Ouchi, and K. Seki, “Energy-level alignment at model interfaces of organic electroluminescent devices studied by uv photoemission: trend in the deviation from the traditional way of estimating the interfacial electronic structures,” IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 24–32, 1998. View at: Google Scholar
  19. H. Ishii, K. Sugiyama, E. Ito, and K. Seki, “Energy level alignment and interfacial electronic structures at organic/metal and organic/organic interfaces,” Advanced Materials, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 605–625, 1999. View at: Google Scholar
  20. M. Funahashi and J. Hanna, “Photoconductive behavior in smectic a phase of 2-(4- heptyloxyphenyl)-6-dodecylthiobenzothiazole,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 2: Letters, vol. 35, no. 6 A, pp. L703–L705, 1996. View at: Google Scholar
  21. M. Funahashi and J. Hanna, “Fast ambipolar carrier transport in smectic phases of phenylnaphthalene liquid crystal,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 602–604, 1997. View at: Google Scholar
  22. M. Funahashi and J. Hanna, “Fast hole transport in a new calamitic liquid crystal of 2-(4-heptyloxyphenyl)-6-dodecylthiobenzothiazole,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 78, no. 11, pp. 2184–2187, 1997. View at: Google Scholar
  23. M. Funahashi and J. Hanna, “First electronic conduction with high hole mobility in smectic a phase of a calamitic liquid crystal,” Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals, vol. 304, pp. 429–434, 1997. View at: Google Scholar
  24. S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1981. View at: Google Scholar
  25. P. E. Burrows, Z. Shen, and V. Bulovic et al., “Relationship between electroluminescence and current transport in organic heterojunction light-emitting devices,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 79, no. 10, pp. 7991–8006, 1996. View at: Google Scholar
  26. M. A. Baldo and S. R. Forrest, “Interface-limited injection in amorphous organic semiconductors,” Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, vol. 64, no. 8, Article ID 085201, 17 pages, 2001. View at: Google Scholar
  27. T. Toda, T. Takeuchi, J. Hanna, and T. Tani, “Electrical properties and electronics structure of the interface between electrode and liquid-crystalline semiconductor,” Journal of the Society of Photographic Science and Technology of Japan, vol. 68, p. 390, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  28. T. Toda, J. Hanna, and T. Tani, to appear in Journal of Applied Physics.
  29. T. Toda, J. Hanna, and T. Tani, “A study on positive hole injection from electrode to liquid-crystalline semiconductors,” in NIP22; 22nd International conference on digital printing tecnologies, pp. 7–22, Denver, Colorado, USA, September 2006. View at: Google Scholar

Copyright © 2006 Tadaaki Tani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


More related articles

 PDF Download Citation Citation
 Order printed copiesOrder
Views124
Downloads640
Citations

Related articles

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.