Maurizio Addamo, Vincenzo Augugliaro, Salvatore Coluccia, Agatino Di Paola, Elisa García-López, Vittorio Loddo, Giuseppe Marcì, Gianmario Martra, Leonardo Palmisano, "The role of water in the photocatalytic degradation of acetonitrile and toluene in gas-solid and liquid-solid regimes", International Journal of Photoenergy, vol. 2006, Article ID 039182, 12 pages, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1155/IJP/2006/39182
The role of water in the photocatalytic degradation of acetonitrile and toluene in gas-solid and liquid-solid regimes
Photocatalytic degradation of acetonitrile and toluene was carried out both in gas-solid and in liquid-solid regimes by using commercial samples (Merck and Degussa P25). The investigation was mainly aimed to study the influence of water present in the reaction environment on the mechanism and degradation rate of two probe molecules. In gas-solid regime, the reacting mixture consisted of toluene or acetonitrile, oxygen, nitrogen, and water vapour. The main degradation product of toluene was with small amounts of benzaldehyde. In the presence of water vapour, the activity of Merck remained stable but greatly decreased if water was absent. Degussa P25 continuously deactivated, even in the presence of water vapour. With both catalysts, the photodegradation products of acetonitrile were and HCN; the activity was stable and was independent of the presence of water vapour in the reacting mixture. The production of HCN represents a drawback of acetonitrile photocatalytic degradation but the elimination of HCN is not actually a problem. In liquid-solid regime, the main intermediates of toluene photodegradation were -cresol and benzaldehyde; traces of pyrogallol and benzyl alcohol were also found. Benzoic acid, hydroquinone, and trans, trans muconic acid were detected only when Merck was used. The photodegradation products of acetonitrile were cyanide, cyanate, formate, nitrate, and carbonate ions.
- M. Schiavello, Ed., Heterogeneous Photocatalysis, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1995.
- N. Serpone and E. Pelizzetti, Eds., Photocatalysis: Fundamentals and Applications, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1989.
- A. Fujishima, K. Hashimoto, and T. Watanabe, Photocatalysis: Fundamentals and Applications, BKC, Tokyo, Japan, 1999.
- J. Peral and D. F. Ollis, “Heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation of gas-phase organics for air purification: acetone, 1-butanol, butyraldehyde, formaldehyde, and -xylene oxidation,” Journal of Catalysis, vol. 136, no. 2, pp. 554–565, 1992.
- M. L. Sauer and D. F. Ollis, “Photocatalyzed oxidation of ethanol and acetaldehyde in humidified air,” Journal of Catalysis, vol. 158, no. 2, pp. 570–582, 1996.
- A. L. Linsebigler, G. Lu, and J. T. Yates Jr, “Photocatalysis on surfaces: principles, mechanisms, and selected results,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 735–758, 1995.
- T. Ibusuki and K. Takeuchi, “Toluene oxidation on u.v.-irradiated titanium dioxide with and without , or at ambient temperature,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1711–1715, 1986.
- T. N. Obee and R. T. Brown, “ photocatalysis for indoor air applications: effects of humidity and trace contaminant levels on the oxidation rates of formaldehyde, toluene, and 1,3-butadiene,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 1223–1231, 1995.
- Y. Luo and D. F. Ollis, “Heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation of trichloroethylene and toluene mixtures in air: kinetic promotion and inhibition, time-dependent catalyst activity,” Journal of Catalysis, vol. 163, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 1996.
- H. Einaga, S. Futamura, and T. Ibusuki, “Heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation of benzene, toluene, cyclohexene and cyclohexane in humidified air: comparison of decomposition behavior on photoirradiated catalyst,” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 215–225, 2002.
- V. Augugliaro, S. Coluccia, V. Loddo et al., “VOC's abatement: photocatalytic oxidation of toluene in vapour phase on anatase catalyst,” Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis, vol. 110, pp. 663–672, 1997.
- G. Martra, V. Augugliaro, S. Coluccia et al., “Photocatalytic oxidation of gaseous toluene on polycrystalline : FT-IR investigation of surface reactivity of different types of catalyst,” Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis, vol. 130, pp. 665–670, 2000.
- M. Fujihira, Y. Satoh, and T. Osa, “Heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation of aromatic compounds on ,” Nature, vol. 293, pp. 206–208, 1981.
- M. Fujihira, Y. Satoh, and T. Osa, “Heterogeneous photocatalytic reactions on semiconductor materials: Part II. Photoelectrochemistry at semiconductor / insulating aromatic hydrocarbon liquid interface,” Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, vol. 126, no. 1–3, pp. 277–281, 1981.
- J. A. Navio, M. García Gómez, M. A. Pradera Adrian, and J. Fuentes Mota, “Partial or complete heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation of neat toluene and 4-picoline in liquid organic oxygenated dispersions containing pure or iron-doped titania photocatalysts,” Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, vol. 104, no. 3, pp. 329–339, 1996.
- V. Augugliaro, V. Loddo, G. Marcì et al., “Photocatalytic degradation of toluene in aqueous suspensions of polycrystalline in the presence of the surfactant tetradecyldimethylamino-oxide,” Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis, vol. 130, pp. 1973–1978, 2000.
- G. Marcí, M. Addamo, V. Augugliaro et al., “Photocatalytic oxidation of toluene on irradiated : comparison of degradation performance in humidified air, in water and in water containing a zwitterionic surfactant,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, vol. 160, no. 1, pp. 105–114, 2003.
- N. N. Lichtin and M. Avudaithai, “-photocatalyzed oxidative degradation of , , , and supplied as vapors and in aqueous solution under similar conditions,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 2014–2020, 1996.
- J. Zhuang, C. N. Rusu, and J. T. Yates Jr, “Adsorption and photooxidation of on ,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B, vol. 103, no. 33, pp. 6957–6967, 1999.
- V. Augugliaro, A. Bianco Prevot, J. Cáceres Vázquez et al., “Photocatalytic oxidation of acetonitrile in aqueous suspension of titanium dioxide irradiated by sunlight,” Advances in Environmental Research, vol. 8, no. 3-4, pp. 329–335, 2004.
- P. Davit, G. Martra, S. Coluccia et al., “Adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of acetonitrile: FT-IR investigation,” Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, vol. 204-205, pp. 693–701, 2003.
- G. Martra, “Lewis acid and base sites at the surface of microcrystalline anatase: relationships between surface morphology and chemical behaviour,” Applied Catalysis A: General, vol. 200, no. 1-2, pp. 275–285, 2000.
- J. Cunningham, M. Jauch, and D. McNamara, “Adsorbate activation on metal oxides by single-electron and electron-pair interactions,” Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Section B: Biological, Geological, and Chemical Science, vol. 89, pp. 299–320, 1989.
- K. Hadjiivanov, D. Klissurski, G. Busca, and V. Lorenzelli, “Benzene-ammonia coadsorption on (anatase),” Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 175–178, 1991.
- R. I. Bickley, Heterogeneous Photocatalysis, vol. 3, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1997.
- C.-C Chuang, W.-C. Wu, M.-X. Lee, and J.-L. Lin, “Adsorption and photochemistry of and on powdered ,” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 2, no. 17, pp. 3877–3882, 2000.
- V. Augugliaro, V. Loddo, G. Marcì, L. Palmisano, and M. J. López-Muñoz, “Photocatalytic oxidation of cyanides in aqueous titanium dioxide suspensions,” Journal of Catalysis, vol. 166, no. 2, pp. 272–283, 1997.
- M. Nagao and Y. Suda, “Adsorption of benzene, toluene, and chlorobenzene on titanium dioxide,” Langmuir, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 42–47, 1989.
- G. Martra, S. Coluccia, L. Marchese et al., “The role of in the photocatalytic oxidation of toluene in vapour phase on anatase catalyst: a FTIR study,” Catalysis Today, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 695–702, 1999.
Copyright © 2006 Maurizio Addamo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.