Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2012, Article ID 154704, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/154704
Research Article

Fabrication of Cu–Zn–Sn–S–O Thin Films by the Electrochemical Deposition Method and Application to Heterojunction Cells

Department of Engineering Physics, Electronics and Mechanics, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya 466-8555, Japan

Received 16 April 2012; Accepted 13 July 2012

Academic Editor: Raghu N. Bhattacharya

Copyright © 2012 Kai Yang and Masaya Ichimura. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. Ito and T. Nakazawa, “Electrical and optical properties of stannite-type quaternary semiconductor thin films,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 2094–2097, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. H. Katagiri, K. Jimbo, S. Yamada et al., “Enhanced conversion efficiencies of Cu2ZnSnS4-based thin film solar cells by using preferential etching technique,” Applied Physics Express, vol. 1, no. 4, Article ID 041201, 2 pages, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. A. R. Barkhouse, O. Gunawan, T. Gokmen, T. K. Todorov, and D. B. Mitzi, “Device characteristics of a 10.1% hydrazine-processed Cu2ZnSn(Se,S)4 solar cell,” Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 6–11, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. T. Washio, T. Shinji, S. Tajima et al., “6% Efficiency Cu2ZnSnS4-based thin film solar cells using oxide precursors by open atmosphere type CVD,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 4021–4024, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. H. Araki, Y. Kubo, K. Jimbo et al., “Preparation of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films by sulfurization of co-electroplated Cu–Zn–Sn precursors,” Physica Status Solidi C, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 1266–1268, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. Ennaoui, M. Lux-Steiner, A. Weber et al., “Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cells from electroplated precursors: novel low-cost perspective,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 517, no. 7, pp. 2511–2514, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. J. Scragg, P. J. Dale, L. M. Peter, G. Zoppi, and I. Forbes, “New routes to sustainable photovoltaics: evaluation of Cu 2ZnSnS4 as an alternative absorber material,” Physica Status Solidi B, vol. 245, no. 9, pp. 1772–1778, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Jeon, T. Shimizu, and S. Shingubara, “Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films and nanowires prepared by different single-step electrodeposition method in quaternary electrolyte,” Materials Letters, vol. 65, no. 15-16, pp. 2364–2367, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. M. Pawar, B. S. Pawar, A. V. Moholkar et al., “Single step electrosynthesis of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films for solar cell application,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 55, no. 12, pp. 4057–4061, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Y. Cui, S. Zuo, J. Jiang, S. Yuan, and J. Chu, “Synthesis and characterization of co-electroplated Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films as potential photovoltaic material,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 95, no. 8, pp. 2136–2140, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. A. Contreras, K. Ramanathan, J. Abushama et al., “Diode characteristics in state-of-the-art ZnO/CdS/Cu(In1xGax)Se2 solar cells,” Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 209–216, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. T. Htay, Y. Hashimoto, N. Momose et al., “A cadmium-free Cu2ZnSnS4/ZnO hetrojunction solar cell prepared by practicable processes,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 50, no. 3, Article ID 032301, 4 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. F. Kang, J. P. Ao, G. Z. Sun, Q. He, and Y. Sun, “Growth and characterization of CuInSe2 thin films via one-step electrodeposition from a lactic acid/sodium lactate buffer system,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 115, no. 2-3, pp. 516–520, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. F. Kang and M. Ichimura, “Pulsed electrodeposition of oxygen-free tin monosulfide thin films using lactic acid/sodium lactate buffered electrolytes,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 519, no. 2, pp. 725–728, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. K. Yang and M. Ichimura, “Fabrication of transparent p-Type CuxZnyS thin films by the electrochemical deposition method,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 50, no. 4, Article ID 040202, 3 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Izaki and T. Omi, “Electrolyte optimization for cathodic growth of zinc oxide films,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 143, no. 3, pp. L53–L55, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Peulon and D. Lincot, “Cathodic electrodeposition from aqueous solution of dense or open-structured zinc oxide films,” Advanced Materials, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 166–170, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. J. M. Vequizo, J. Wang, and M. Ichimura, “Electrodeposition of SnO2 thin films from aqueous tin sulfate solutions,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 49, no. 12, Article ID 125502, 5 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. T. Chang, I. C. Leu, and M. H. Hon, “Preparation and characterization of nanostructured tin oxide films by electrochemical deposition,” Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. C71–C74, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. E. Rakhshani, A. A. Al-Jassar, and J. Varghese, “Electrodeposition and characterization of cuprous oxide,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 148, no. 2, pp. 191–201, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. D. Golden, M. G. Shumsky, Y. Zhou, R. A. VanderWerf, R. A. van Leeuwen, and J. A. Switzer, “Electrochemical deposition of copper(I) oxide films,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 2499–2504, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. Omoto, N. Fathy, and M. Ichimura, “Deposition of SnSxOy films by electrochemical deposition using three-step pulse and their characterization,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 1500–1505, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. N. Fathy and M. Ichimura, “Electrochemical deposition of ZnO1xSx thin films using three-step pulse,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 44, no. 42–45, pp. L1295–L1297, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. T. Washio, H. Nozaki, T. Fukano et al., “Analysis of lattice site occupancy in kesterite structure of Cu2ZnSnS4 films using synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction,” Applied Physics, vol. 110, no. 7, Article ID 074511, 4 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. H. Katagiri, K. Jimbo, W. S. Maw et al., “Development of CZTS-based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 517, no. 7, pp. 2455–2460, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Q. Guo, G. M. Ford, W. C. Yang et al., “Fabrication of 7.2% efficient CZTSSe solar cells using CZTS nanocrystals,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 132, no. 49, pp. 17384–17386, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus