Figure 5: 6′′ mc-Si PV solar cells with surface texture using 1 μm, 600 nm, and 100 nm-thick nanorods shown from (a) to (c) are tested by electroluminescence (EL) to investigate the doping uniformity in cells. The lateral nonuniform doping introduces defects (the dark regions) in solar cells, largely suppressing the minority carrier lifetime and the IR light irradiation. The solar cell decorated with 100 nm-thick nanorods has few dark areas, showing the better doping uniformity.