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International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 260728, 9 pages
Review Article

Two- and Three-Component Visible Light Photoinitiating Systems for Radical Polymerization Based on Onium Salts: An Overview of Mechanistic and Laser Flash Photolysis Studies

Departamento de Química, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Campus Universitario, 5800 Río Cuarto, Argentina

Received 20 February 2012; Revised 7 May 2012; Accepted 22 June 2012

Academic Editor: Xavier Allonas

Copyright © 2012 María L. Gómez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A review of our work on two- and-three component photoinitiator systems is presented. The emphasis is in on visible light polymerization in aqueous media. The systems discussed comprise a synthetic dye as sensitizer and an onium salt as coinitiator, or a dye-amine-onium salt with the amine as coinitiator and the onium salt as an enhancer of the polymerization efficiency. The effect of the composition of the system on the photopolymerization kinetics was analyzed. To this end, the photophysics and photochemistry of the dye under polymerization conditions was explored by means of stationary and time-resolved spectroscopic methods. Different dyes and onium salts were investigated. The action mechanism of the different photoinitiators systems is discussed.