Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 520123, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/520123
Research Article

Simultaneous Photocatalytic Reduction of Cr(VI) and Oxidation of Benzoic Acid in Aqueous N-F-Codoped TiO2 Suspensions: Optimization and Modeling Using the Response Surface Methodology

Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Western Greece, 30100 Agrinio, Greece

Received 1 June 2012; Accepted 29 July 2012

Academic Editor: Manickavachagam Muruganandham

Copyright © 2012 Maria Antonopoulou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. C. Hsu, H. L. Hsieh, C. P. Chen et al., “Tungsten and other heavy metal contamination in aquatic environments receiving wastewater from semiconductor manufacturing,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 189, no. 1-2, pp. 193–202, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. J. Pignatello, B. G. Katz, and H. Li, “Sources, interactions, and ecological impacts of organic contaminants in water, soil, and sediment: an introduction to the special series,” Journal of Environmental Quality, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 1133–1138, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. Stuart, D. Lapworth, E. Crane, and A. Hart, “Review of risk from potential emerging contaminants in UK groundwater,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 416, pp. 1–21, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. R. Qiu, D. Zhang, Z. Diao et al., “Visible light induced photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) over polymer-sensitized TiO2 and its synergism with phenol oxidation,” Water Research, vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 2299–2306, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. X. Zhao, Q. Li, X. Zhang, H. Su, K. Lan, and A. Chen, “Simultaneous removal of metal ions and methyl orange by combined selective adsorption and photocatalysis,” Environmental Progress and Sustainable Energy, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 567–575, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. R. Khataee and M. B. Kasiri, “Artificial neural networks modeling of contaminated water treatment processes by homogeneous and heterogeneous nanocatalysis,” Journal of Molecular Catalysis A, vol. 331, no. 1-2, pp. 86–100, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. I. K. Konstantinou and T. A. Albanis, “Photocatalytic transformation of pesticides in aqueous titanium dioxide suspensions using artificial and solar light: intermediates and degradation pathways,” Applied Catalysis B, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 319–335, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. Mishra, J. Hait, N. Aman, R. K. Jana, and S. Chakravarty, “Effect of UV and visible light on photocatalytic reduction of lead and cadmium over titania based binary oxide materials,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 316, no. 1, pp. 80–84, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. I. Litter, “Treatment of chromium, mercury, lead, uranium, and arsenic in water by heterogeneous photocatalysis,” Advances in Chemical Engineering, vol. 36, pp. 37–67, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. N. Aman, T. Mishra, J. Hait, and R. K. Jana, “Simultaneous photoreductive removal of copper (II) and selenium (IV) under visible light over spherical binary oxide photocatalyst,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 186, no. 1, pp. 360–366, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. N. Wang, Y. Xu, L. Zhu, X. Shen, and H. Tang, “Reconsideration to the deactivation of TiO2 catalyst during simultaneous photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) and oxidation of salicylic acid,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A, vol. 201, no. 2-3, pp. 121–127, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. P. Banerjee, S. Chakrabarti, S. Maitra, and B. K. Dutta, “Zinc oxide nano-particles—sonochemical synthesis, characterization and application for photo-remediation of heavy metal,” Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 85–93, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Antonopoulou, V. Papadopoulos, and I. Konstantinou, “Photocatalytic oxidation of treated municipal wastewaters for the removal of phenolic compounds: optimization and modeling using response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural networks (ANNs),” Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology. In press. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. T. Velegraki and D. Mantzavinos, “Conversion of benzoic acid during TiO2-mediated photocatalytic degradation in water,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 140, no. 1–3, pp. 15–21, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. A. Ajmera, S. B. Sawant, V. G. Pangarkar, and A. A. C. M. Beenackers, “Solar-assisted photocatalytic degradation of benzoic acid using titanium dioxide as a photocatalyst,” Chemical Engineering and Technology, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 173–180, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. E. I. Korotkova, O. A. Avramchik, T. M. Angelov, and Y. A. Karbainov, “Investigation of antioxidant activity and lipophilicity parameters of some preservatives,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 324–332, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. N. Wang, L. Zhu, K. Deng, Y. She, Y. Yu, and H. Tang, “Visible light photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) on TiO2 in situ modified with small molecular weight organic acids,” Applied Catalysis B, vol. 95, no. 3-4, pp. 400–407, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. V. Prigione, M. Zerlottin, D. Refosco, V. Tigini, A. Anastasi, and G. C. Varese, “Chromium removal from a real tanning effluent by autochthonous and allochthonous fungi,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 100, no. 11, pp. 2770–2776, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. Pandikumar and R. Ramaraj, “Titanium dioxide-gold nanocomposite materials embedded in silicate sol-gel film catalyst for simultaneous photodegradation of hexavalent chromium and methylene blue,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 203-204, pp. 244–250, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. B. Sun, E. P. Reddy, and P. G. Smirniotis, “Visible light Cr(VI) reduction and organic chemical oxidation by TiO2 photocatalysis,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 39, no. 16, pp. 6251–6259, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. X. R. Xu, H. B. Li, and J. D. Gu, “Photocatalytic reduction of hexavalent chromium and degradation of di-N-Butyl phthalate in aqueous TiO2 suspensions under ultraviolet light irradiation,” Environmental Technology, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1055–1061, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. G. Colón, M. C. Hidalgo, and J. A. Navío, “Photocatalytic deactivation of commercial TiO2 samples during simultaneous photoreduction of Cr(VI) and photooxidation of salicylic acid,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A, vol. 138, no. 1, pp. 79–85, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. G. Schrank, H. J. José, and R. F. P. M. Moreira, “Simultaneous photocatalytic Cr(VI) reduction and dye oxidation in a TiO2 slurry reactor,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A, vol. 147, no. 1, pp. 71–76, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. T. Papadam, N. P. Xekoukoulotakis, I. Poulios, and D. Mantzavinos, “Photocatalytic transformation of acid orange 20 and Cr(VI) in aqueous TiO2 suspensions,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A, vol. 186, no. 2-3, pp. 308–315, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. H. Kyung, J. Lee, and W. Choi, “Simultaneous and synergistic conversion of dyes and heavy metal ions in aqueous TiO2 suspensions under visible-light illumination,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 2376–2382, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Q. Wang, C. Chen, W. Ma, H. Zhu, and J. Zhao, “Pivotal role of fluorine in tuning band structure and visible-light photocatalytic activity of nitrogen-doped TiO2,” Chemistry—A European Journal, vol. 15, no. 19, pp. 4765–4769, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. K. Bourikas, J. Vakros, C. Kordulis, and A. Lycourghiotis, “Potentiometric mass titrations: experimental and theoretical establishment of a new technique for determining the point of zero charge (PZC) of metal (hydr)oxides,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 107, no. 35, pp. 9441–9451, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. L. B. Khalil, W. E. Mourad, and M. W. Rophael, “Photocatalytic reduction of environmental pollutant Cr(VI) over some semiconductors under UV/visible light illumination,” Applied Catalysis B, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 267–273, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. Y. Ku and I. L. Jung, “Photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) in aqueous solutions by UV irradiation with the presence of titanium dioxide,” Water Research, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 135–142, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. I. K. Konstantinou and T. A. Albanis, “TiO2-assisted photocatalytic degradation of azo dyes in aqueous solution: kinetic and mechanistic investigations: a review,” Applied Catalysis B, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. V. A. Sakkas, P. Calza, A. D. Vlachou, C. Medana, C. Minero, and T. Albanis, “Photocatalytic transformation of flufenacet over TiO2 aqueous suspensions: Identification of intermediates and the mechanism involved,” Applied Catalysis B, vol. 110, pp. 238–250, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. V. G. Gandhi, M. K. Mishra, M. S. Rao, A. Kumar, P. A. Joshi, and D. O. Shah, “Comparative study on nano-crystalline titanium dioxide catalyzed photocatalytic degradation of aromatic carboxylic acids in aqueous medium,” Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 331–339, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. Assabane, Y. Ait Ichou, H. Tahiri, C. Guillard, and J. M. Herrmann, “Photocatalytic degradation of polycarboxylic benzoic acids in UV-irradiated aqueous suspensions of titania. Identification of intermediates and reaction pathway of the photomineralization of trimellitic acid (1,2,4-benzene tricarboxylic acid),” Applied Catalysis B, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 71–87, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus