Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2012, Article ID 960726, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/960726
Research Article

Nitrogen-Doped Photocatalyst Prepared by Mechanochemical Method: Doping Mechanisms and Visible Photoactivity of Pollutant Degradation

1Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Wastewater Reuse, Department of Environmental Engineering, Anhui University of Architecture, Hefei 230022, China
2School of Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China

Received 21 June 2011; Accepted 13 July 2011

Academic Editor: Jinlong Zhang

Copyright © 2012 Yu-Chao Tang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. Lindgren, J. M. Mwabora, E. Avandano et al., “Photoelectrochemical and optical properties of nitrogen doped titanium dioxide films prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 107, no. 24, pp. 5709–5716, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. Anpo and M. Takeuchi, “The design and development of highly reactive titanium oxide photocatalysts operating under visible light irradiation,” Journal of Catalysis, vol. 216, no. 1-2, pp. 505–516, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. Wu, R. Xie, J. A. Imlay, and J. K. Shang, “Visible-light-induced photocatalytic inactivation of bacteria by composite photocatalysts of palladium oxide and nitrogen-doped titanium oxide,” Applied Catalysis B, vol. 88, no. 3-4, pp. 576–581, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. Z. Zhang, X. Wang, J. Long, Q. Gu, Z. Ding, and X. Fu, “Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide visible light photocatalyst: spectroscopic identification of photoactive centers,” Journal of Catalysis, vol. 276, no. 2, pp. 201–214, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. K. Noritsugu, F. Akiyo, and Y. Yoshiro, “Synthesis of N-doped titanium oxide by hydrothermal treatment,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 2492–2498, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. Asahi, T. Morikawa, T. Ohwaki, K. Aoki, and Y. Taga, “Visible-light photocatalysis in nitrogen-doped titanium oxides,” Science, vol. 293, no. 5528, pp. 269–271, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. Yang, Y. Dai, and B. Huang, “Study of the nitrogen concentration influence on N-doped TiO2 anatase from first-principles calculations,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 111, no. 32, pp. 12086–12090, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. Burda, Y. Lou, X. Chen, A. C. S. Samia, J. Stout, and J. L. Gole, “Enhanced nitrogen doping in TiO2 nanoparticles,” Nano Letters, vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 1049–1051, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. Nakamura, T. Tanaka, and Y. Nakato, “Mechanism for visible light responses in anodic photocurrents at N-doped TiO2 film electrodes,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 108, no. 30, pp. 10617–10620, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. B. Neumann, P. Bogdanoff, H. Tributsch, S. Sakthivel, and H. Kisch, “Electrochemical mass spectroscopic and surface photovoltage studies of catalytic water photooxidation by undoped and carbon-doped titania,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 109, no. 35, pp. 16579–16586, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. Konta, T. Ishii, H. Kato, and A. Kudo, “Photocatalytic activities of noble metal ion doped SrTiO3 under visible light irradiation,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 108, no. 26, pp. 8992–8995, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. Wang, D. N. Tafen, J. P. Lewis et al., “Origin of photocatalytic activity of Nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanobelts,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 131, no. 34, pp. 12290–12297, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Mrowetz, W. Balcerski, A. J. Colussi, and M. R. Hoffmann, “Oxidative power of nitrogen-doped TiO2 photocatalysts under visible illumination,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 108, no. 45, pp. 17269–17273, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. Y. Cong, J. L. Zhang, F. Chen, M. Anpo, and D. N. He, “Preparation, photocatalytic activity, and mechanism of nano-TiO2 Co-doped with nitrogen and iron (III),” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 111, no. 28, pp. 10618–10623, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. B. Kosowska, S. Mozia, A. W. Morawski, B. Grzmil, M. Janus, and K. Kałucki, “The preparation of TiO2-nitrogen doped by calcination of TiO2·xH2O under ammonia atmosphere for visible light photocatalysis,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 269–280, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Mozia, M. Tomaszewska, B. Kosowska, B. Grzmil, A. W. Morawski, and K. Kałucki, “Decomposition of nonionic surfactant on a nitrogen-doped photocatalyst under visible-light irradiation,” Applied Catalysis B, vol. 55, pp. 195–200, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  17. T. Ihara, M. Miyoshi, Y. Iriyama, O. Matsumoto, and S. Sugihara, “Visible-light-active titanium oxide photocatalyst realized by an oxygen-deficient structure and by nitrogen doping,” Applied Catalysis B, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 403–409, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Y. Nosaka, M. Matsushita, J. Nishino, and A. Y. Nosaka, “Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide photocatalysts for visible response prepared by using organic compounds,” Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 143–148, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. H. Lee, E. Yamasue, H. Okumura, and K. N. Ishihara, “Effect of oxygen and nitrogen concentration of nitrogen doped TiOx film as photocatalyst prepared by reactive sputtering,” Applied Catalysis A, vol. 371, no. 1-2, pp. 179–190, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. Y. Suda, H. Kawasaki, T. Ueda, and T. Ohshima, “Preparation of high quality nitrogen doped TiO2 thin film as a photocatalyst using a pulsed laser deposition method,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 453-454, pp. 162–166, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. L. Zhang, Y. M. Wu, M. Y. Xing, S. A. K. Leghari, and S. Sajjad, “Development of modified N doped TiO2 photocatalyst with metals, nonmetals and metal oxides,” Energy and Environmental Science, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 715–726, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Yin, H. Yamaki, Q. Zhang et al., “Mechanochemical synthesis of nitrogen-doped titania and its visible light induced NOx destruction ability,” Solid State Ionics, vol. 172, no. 1–4, pp. 205–209, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. F. Chen, L. Chen, S. Gao, and G. Y. Cao, “The preparation of nitrogen-doped photocatalyst TiO2-XNX by ball milling,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 413, no. 4–6, pp. 404–409, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. H. X. Li, J. X. Li, and Y. N. Huo, “Highly active TiO2N photocatalysts prepared by treating TiO2 precursors in NH3/ethanol fluid under supercritical conditions,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 110, no. 4, pp. 1559–1565, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. Y. C. Tang, X. H. Huang, H. Q. Yu, and C. Hu, “Characterization and visible-light-activity of nitrogen-doped TiO2 photocatalyst,” Chinese Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 1747–1751, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. H. Irie, Y. Watanabe, and K. Hashimoto, “Nitrogen-concentration dependence on photocatalytic activity of TiO2-XNX powders,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 107, no. 23, pp. 5483–5486, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. X. Chen and C. Burda, “Photoelectron spectroscopic investigation of nitrogen-doped titania nanoparticles,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 108, no. 40, pp. 15446–15449, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C. D. Valentin, J. M. Pacchioni, and A. Selloni, “Origin of the different photoactivity of N-doped anatase and rutile TiO2,” Physical Review B, vol. 70, no. 8, Article ID 085116, 4 pages, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. Z. Lin, A. Orlov, R. M. Lambert, and M. C. Payne, “New insights into the origin of visible light photocatalytic activity of nitrogen-doped and oxygen-deficient anatase TiO2,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 109, no. 44, pp. 20948–20952, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. O. Diwald, T. L. Thompson, E. G. Goralski, S. D. Walck Jr., and J. T. Yates, “The effect of nitrogen ion implantation on the photoactivity of TiO2 rutile single crystals,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 52–57, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. M. Mwabora, T. Lindgren, E. Avendaño et al., “Structure, composition, and morphology of photoelectrochemically active TiO2-xNx thin films deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 108, no. 52, pp. 20193–20198, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. C. D. Valentin, G. Pacchioni, A. Selloni, S. Livraghi, and E. Giamello, “Characterization of paramagnetic species in N-doped TiO2 powders by EPR spectroscopy and DFT calculations,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 109, no. 23, pp. 11414–11419, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. Y. Cong, J. L. Zhang, F. Chen, and M. Anpo, “Synthesis and characterization of nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanophotocatalyst with high visible light activity,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 111, no. 19, pp. 6976–6982, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. O. Diwald, T. L. Thompson, T. Zubkov, E. G. Goralski, S. D. Walck Jr., and J. T. Yates, “Photochemical activity of nitrogen-doped rutile TiO2(110) in visible light,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 108, no. 19, pp. 6004–6008, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. H. Park and W. Choi, “Effects of TiO2 surface fluorination on photocatalytic reactions and photoelectrochemical behaviors,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 108, no. 13, pp. 4086–4093, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. S. Park and W. Choi, “Enhanced remote photocatalytic oxidation on surface-fluorinated TiO2,” Langmuir, vol. 20, no. 26, pp. 11523–11527, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. P. Wu, R. Xie, K. Imlay, and J. K. Shang, “Visible-light-induced bactericidal activity of titanium dioxide codoped with nitrogen and silver,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 44, no. 18, pp. 6992–6997, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. G. R. Torres, T. Lindgren, J. Lu, C. G. Granqvist, and S. E. Lindquist, “Photoelectrochemical study of nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide for water oxidation,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 108, no. 19, pp. 5995–6003, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. P. Sawunyama, A. Fujishima, and K. Hashimoto, “Photocatalysis on TiO2 surfaces investigated by atomic force microscopy: photodegradation of partial and full monolayers of stearic acid on TiO2(110),” Langmuir, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 3551–3556, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus