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International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 289328, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/289328
Research Article

Mechanisms of Visible Light Photocatalysis in N-Doped Anatase TiO2 with Oxygen Vacancies from GGA+U Calculations

1Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei 24301, Taiwan
2Center for Thin Film Technologies and Applications, Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei 24301, Taiwan

Received 5 July 2012; Revised 15 January 2013; Accepted 16 January 2013

Academic Editor: Leonardo Palmisano

Copyright © 2013 Hsuan-Chung Wu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

We have systematically studied the photocatalytic mechanisms of nitrogen doping in anatase TiO2 using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, employing Hubbard U (8.47 eV) on-site correction. The impurity formation energy, charge density, and electronic structure properties of TiO2 supercells containing substitutional nitrogen, interstitial nitrogen, or oxygen vacancies were evaluated to clarify the mechanisms under visible light. According to the formation energy, a substitutional N atom is better formed than an interstitial N atom, and the formation of an oxygen vacancy in N-doped TiO2 is easier than that in pure TiO2. The calculated results have shown that a significant band gap narrowing may only occur in heavy nitrogen doping. With light nitrogen doping, the photocatalysis under visible light relies on N-isolated impurity states. Oxygen vacancies existence in N-doped TiO2 can improve the photocatalysis in visible light because of a band gap narrowing and n-type donor states. These findings provide a reasonable explanation of the mechanisms of visible light photocatalysis in N-doped TiO2.