Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2013, Article ID 313904, 7 pages
Research Article

Effects of Phosphorus Diffusion on Gettering of Metal Impurities in UMG Silicon Wafers

1Department of Electronics Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747, Republic of Korea
2KICET Icheon Branch, Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Icheon 467-843, Republic of Korea

Received 29 January 2013; Accepted 17 October 2013

Academic Editor: Junsin Yi

Copyright © 2013 Sung Yean Yoon et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Fe distributions were simulated by using impurity-to-efficiency simulator for the analysis of phosphorus diffusion gettering and confirmed the dependencies of the electron lifetime on the various gettering conditions. It was observed that iron atoms in the Si wafer could be more efficiently gettered if the temperatures were provided to the wafer in two different steps. That two-step gettering process was applied to an upgraded-metallurgical grade (UMG) Si wafer, and the electron lifetimes of the UMG-Si wafer were 3 μsec by applying the second temperature profile at 600°C for 420 min. It was also confirmed that the efficiency of the UMG-Si solar cell increased 0.53% due to two-step gettering process.