Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2013, Article ID 416245, 7 pages
Research Article

The Effect of Annealing Temperature and KCN Etching on the Photovoltaic Properties of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 Solar Cells Using Nanoparticles

1Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280, Japan
2Advanced Institute for Science and Technology, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No 1, Dai Co Viet Rd., Hai Ba Trung, Hanoi, Vietnam
3Research Center for Solar Energy Chemistry, Osaka University, Toyonaka 560-8531, Japan

Received 16 March 2013; Revised 14 May 2013; Accepted 15 May 2013

Academic Editor: Mingce Long

Copyright © 2013 Duy-Cuong Nguyen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Cu(In,Ga)S2 nanoparticles were synthesized by a hot-injection method under a low-vacuum ambience, which were printed and annealed with Se vapor for Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 solar cells. The Cu(In,Ga)S2 nanoparticles were around 14 nm, and the stable ink was obtained by dispersing the nanoparticles in hexanethiol. The crystallinity of the Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 films increased with the increase in annealing temperature. Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 solar cells with KCN etching after annealing showed better photovoltaic properties than KCN etching before annealing and without etching. The best cell was observed at an annealing temperature of C and KCN etching after annealing; the parameters of this cell were a short-circuit photocurrent density of 27.12 mA/cm2, open-circuit voltage of 0.42 V, fill factor of 0.38, and conversion efficiency of 4.3%.