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International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2013, Article ID 918025, 7 pages
Research Article

Ozonation of Indigo Carmine Catalyzed with Fe-Pillared Clay

Centro Conjunto de Investigación en Química Sustentable UAEMex-UNAM, Carretera Toluca Atlacomulco Km 14.5, 50200 Toluca, MEX, Mexico

Received 13 July 2013; Revised 28 September 2013; Accepted 3 October 2013

Academic Editor: M. Muruganandham

Copyright © 2013 Miriam Bernal et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The ozonation catalyzed by iron-pillared clays was studied. The degradation of dye indigo carmine (IC) was elected as test reaction. Fe-pillared clays were synthesized by employing hydrolyzed FeCl3 solutions and bentonite. The pillared structure was verified by XRD and by XPS the oxidation state of iron in the synthesized material was established to be +2. By atomic absorption the weight percentage of iron was determined to be 16. The reaction was conducted in a laboratory scale up-flow bubble column reactor. From the studied variables the best results were obtained with a particle size of 60 microns, , ozone flow of 0.045 L/min, and catalyst concentration of 100 mg/L. IC was completely degraded and degradation rate was found to be double when using Fe-PILCS than with ozone alone. DQO reduction was also significantly higher with catalyzed than with noncatalyzed ozonation.