Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2013, Article ID 936364, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/936364
Research Article

The Effect of Doping Ratios on Structure, Composition, and Electrical Properties of Absorber Formed by Thermal Sintering

1Department of Photonics Engineering, Yuan Ze University, 135 Yuan Tung Road, Chungli 320, Taiwan
2Department of Physics, Fu Jen Catholic University, 510 Zhongzheng Road, Xinzhuang District, New Taipei 242, Taiwan

Received 30 August 2013; Revised 15 October 2013; Accepted 16 October 2013

Academic Editor: David Lee Phillips

Copyright © 2013 Chung Ping Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. M. Razykov, C. S. Ferekides, D. Morel, E. Stefanakos, H. S. Ullal, and H. M. Upadhyaya, “Solar photovoltaic electricity: current status and future prospects,” Solar Energy, vol. 85, no. 8, pp. 1580–1608, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. Jackson, D. Hariskos, E. Lotter et al., “New world record efficiency for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells beyond 20%,” Progress in Photovoltaics, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 894–897, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. E. Lee, J. W. Cho, J. Kim, J. Yun, J. H. Kim, and B. K. Min, “Synthesis of CIGS powders: transition from binary to quaternary crystalline structure,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 506, no. 2, pp. 969–972, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. T. Wada, Y. Matsuo, S. Nomura et al., “Fabrication of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films by a combination of mechanochemical and screen-printing/sintering processes,” Physica Status Solidi A, vol. 203, no. 11, pp. 2593–2597, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. P. Liu and C. L. Chuang, “Fabrication of copper–indium–gallium–diselenide absorber layer by quaternary-alloy nanoparticles for solar cell applications,” Solar Energy, vol. 86, no. 9, pp. 2795–2801, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  6. S. J. Ahn, C. Kim, J. Yun, J. Lee, and K. Yoon, “Effects of heat treatments on the properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanoparticles,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 91, no. 19, pp. 1836–1841, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Yoon, T. Yoon, K.-S. Lee, S. Yoon, J. M. Ha, and S. Choe, “Nanoparticle-based approach for the formation of CIS solar cells,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 93, no. 6-7, pp. 783–788, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. E. Lee, S. J. Park, J. W. Cho, J. Gwak, M.-K. Oh, and B. K. Min, “Nearly carbon-free printable CIGS thin films for solar cell applications,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 95, no. 10, pp. 2928–2932, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. R. Balboul, H. W. Schock, S. A. Fayak, A. Abdel El-Aal, J. H. Werner, and A. A. Ramadan, “Correlation of structure parameters of absorber layer with efficiency of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cell,” Applied Physics A, vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 557–563, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. Olejníček, C. A. Kamler, A. Mirasano et al., “A non-vacuum process for preparing nanocrystalline CuIn1−xGaxSe2 materials involving an open-air solvothermal reaction,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 8–11, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. B. Vidhya, S. Velumani, J. A. Arenas-Alatorre, A. Morales-Acevedo, R. Asomoza, and J. A. Chavez-Carvayar, “Structural studies of mechano-chemically synthesized CuIn1−xGaxSe2 nanoparticles,” Materials Science and Engineering B, vol. 174, no. 1–3, pp. 216–221, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. Suri, K. Nagpal, and G. Chadha, “X-ray study of CuGaxIn1−xSe2 solid solutions,” Journal of Applied Crystallography, vol. 22, pp. 578–583, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  13. E. Yassitepe, Z. Khalifa, G. H. Jaffari et al., “A new route for the synthesis of CuIn0.5Ga0.5Se2 powder for solar cell applications,” Powder Technology, vol. 201, no. 1, pp. 27–31, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Jung, S. Ahn, J. H. Yun, J. Gwak, D. Kim, and K. Yoon, “Effects of Ga contents on properties of CIGS thin films and solar cells fabricated by co-evaporation technique,” Current Applied Physics, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 990–996, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. H. Miyazaki, R. Mikami, A. Yamada, and M. Konagai, “Cu(InGa)Se2 thin film absorber with high Ga contents and its application to the solar cells,” Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol. 64, no. 9-10, pp. 2055–2058, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. Y.-H. A. Wang, C. Pan, N. Bao, and A. Gupta, “Synthesis of ternary and quaternary CulnxGa1−xSe2 (0  x 1) semiconductor nanocrystals,” Solid State Sciences, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1961–1964, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. W. N. Shafarman, R. Klenk, and B. E. McCandless, “Device and material characterization of Cu(InGa)Se2 solar cells with increasing band gap,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 79, no. 9, pp. 7324–7328, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. L. J. van der Pauw, “A method of measuring specific resistivity and Hall effect of discs of arbitrary shape,” Philips Research Reports, vol. 13, pp. 1–9, 1958. View at Google Scholar
  19. M. Turcu and U. Rau, “Compositional trends of defect energies, band alignments, and recombination mechanisms in the Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 alloy system,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 431-432, pp. 158–162, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. L. Zhang, F.-F. Liu, F.-Y. Li, Q. He, B.-Z. Li, and C.-J. Li, “Structural, optical and electrical properties of low-temperature deposition Cu(InxGa1−x)Se2 thin films,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 99, pp. 356–361, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. R. Philip, B. Pradeep, G. S. Okram, and Y. Ganesan, “Investigations of the electrical properties in CuInSe2 and the related ordered vacancy compounds,” Semiconductor Science and Technology, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 798–806, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. D. L. Kristensen, S. N. Sahu, and D. Haneman, “Flash evaporation of CuInSe2 films,” Solar Energy Materials, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 329–345, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. X. Wang, S. S. Li, C. H. Huang et al., “Investigation of pulsed non-melt laser annealing on the film properties and performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 65–73, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. X. Donglin, X. Man, L. Jianzhuang, and Z. Xiujian, “Co-electrodeposition and Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 1875–1878, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. K. Yoshino, K. Nomoto, A. Kinoshita, T. Ikari, Y. Akaki, and T. Yoshitake, “Dependence of Cu/In ratio of structural and electrical characterization of CuInS2 crystal,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 301–304, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. N. Tiwari, D. K. Pandya, and K. L. Chopra, “Electrical and optical properties of single-phase CuInS2 films prepared using spray pyrolysis,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 130, no. 3-4, pp. 217–230, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus