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International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 490264, 11 pages
Research Article

Effect of Isopropanol on Microstructure and Activity of TiO2 Films with Dominant {001} Facets for Photocatalytic Degradation of Bezafibrate

1State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
2Radiation Chemistry Laboratory, National Centre of Excellence in Physical Chemistry, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25120, Pakistan
3School of Civil and Environment Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China

Received 17 February 2014; Accepted 14 May 2014; Published 11 June 2014

Academic Editor: Jimmy C. Yu

Copyright © 2014 Murtaza Sayed et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Titanium dioxide (TiO2) films with dominant {001} facets coated on a titanium sheet (Ti) were synthesized with the simple hydrothermal method by using Ti as the precursor and substrate. The effect of addition of isopropanol into the hydrothermal solution on the structure, photocatalytic activity, and stability of as-synthesized TiO2 films was investigated. The presence of isopropanol obviously influenced the microstructure of as-synthesized TiO2 films, which was converted from microspheres into irregular close stack of truncated tetrahedrons. And the percentage of exposed {001} facets calculated from the Raman spectra increased from 48.2% to 57%. Accordingly, the TiO2 films prepared with addition of isopropanol showed high and stable photocatalytic activity, which is nearly 2.6 times as that of the conventional P25 TiO2 coated on Ti-substrate. In addition, the photocatalytic activity of as-synthesized TiO2 films was greatly enhanced after calcination treatment at 600°C, which can be attributed to removal of fluoride ions and organic residuals adsorbed on the surface of the catalyst. Photoluminescence (PL) technique was used for the detection of produced hydroxyl radicals (OH) on the surface of UV-illuminated TiO2 using terephthalic acid as probe molecule. The photocatalytic degradation intermediates of bezafibrate were analyzed by an ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), and accordingly the degradation pathways were proposed.