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International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2014, Article ID 518156, 21 pages
Review Article

Research and Development Aspects on Chemical Preparation Techniques of Photoanodes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

1Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
2NOVITAS, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798
3School of Chemical Science & Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
4Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

Received 5 August 2013; Revised 19 November 2013; Accepted 21 November 2013; Published 12 January 2014

Academic Editor: Mahmoud M. El-Nahass

Copyright © 2014 Nilofar Asim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The importance of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as a low-cost and environmentally friendly photovoltaic (PV) technology has prompted many researchers to improve its efficiency and durability. The realization of these goals is impossible without taking into account the importance of the materials in DSSCs, so the focus on the preparation/deposition methods is essential. These methods can be either chemical or physical. In this study, the chemical applied methods that utilize chemical reaction to synthesize and deposit the materials are covered and categorized according to their gas phase and liquid phase precursors. Film processing techniques that can be used to enhance the materials' properties postpreparation are also included for further evaluation in this study. However, there is a variety of consideration, and certain criteria must be taken into account when selecting a specific deposition method, due to the fact that the fabrication conditions vary and are unoptimized.