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International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2014, Article ID 839106, 7 pages
Research Article

The Influence of Lead Concentration on Photocatalytic Reduction of Pb(II) Ions Assisted by Cu-TiO2 Nanotubes

1School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seberang Perai Selatan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
2Nanotechnology & Catalysis Research Centre (NANOCAT), 3rd Floor, Block A, Institute of Postgraduate Studies (IPS), University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Received 9 November 2013; Revised 19 December 2013; Accepted 19 December 2013; Published 12 January 2014

Academic Editor: Tian-Yi Ma

Copyright © 2014 Srimala Sreekantan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Cu2+ ions were successfully loaded into TiO2 nanotubes using wet impregnation technique in 0.6 M Cu(NO3)2·3H2O solution. The effect of reaction temperatures on the nanotube’s morphology, crystal structure, and their photocatalytic reduction of Pb(II) ions were investigated. The high reaction temperature could improve the crystallinity of anatase phase. However, irregular and corrugated nanotubular surface covered with Cu precipitates was observed. In the present study, incorporation of an optimum content of Cu element (1.3 at%) into TiO2 nanotubes at room temperature has an important function in enhancing the photocatalytic reduction of Pb(II) ions in alkaline condition (pH 11) due to the higher synergistic effects of photocatalytic reaction under UV illumination. The optimum concentration of Pb(II) ions for effective Pb(II) ions removal performance was found in between 20 and 60 ppm.