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International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2014, Article ID 906037, 8 pages
Research Article

Low Temperature (180°C) Growth of Smooth Surface Germanium Epilayers on Silicon Substrates Using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Chemical Vapor Deposition

1Department of Optics and Photonics, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan
2Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan
3Optical Science Center, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan
4Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan
5Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan

Received 4 June 2014; Revised 25 July 2014; Accepted 26 July 2014; Published 10 August 2014

Academic Editor: Niyaz Mohammad Mahmoodi

Copyright © 2014 Teng-Hsiang Chang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper describes a new method to grow thin germanium (Ge) epilayers (40 nm) on c-Si substrates at a low growth temperature of 180°C using electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECR-CVD) process. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the Ge (004) in X-ray diffraction pattern and the compressive stain in a Ge epilayer of 683 arcsec and 0.12% can be achieved. Moreover, the Ge/Si interface is observed by transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate the epitaxial growth of Ge on Si and the surface roughness is 0.342 nm. The thin-thickness and smooth surface of Ge epilayer grown on Si in this study is suitable to be a virtual substrate for developing the low cost and high efficiency III-V/Si tandem solar cells in our opinion. Furthermore, the low temperature process can not only decrease costs but can also reduce the restriction of high temperature processes on device manufacturing.