Figure 7: Simulated (a) , (b) , (c) FF and (d)   as a function of threading dislocation densities TDDbot in the active region of the bottom subcell with and surface recombination velocities of 1 × 103 cm/s at the GaInAs/CuInSe2 interface as well as each CGB interface, illuminated by the AM1.5D spectrum (1000 W/m2) at 300 K. The light and dark gray regions indicate the threshold level of TDDbot for the CuInSe2 and LMM devices, respectively, for a reduction in minority carrier lifetime by a factor of 2.